Like influenza viruses, a dual classification system for group
A rotaviruses has been established depending on two outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, defining respectively P en G genotypes. Recently, a genotyping system based on complete nucleotide sequences of all 11 genomic RNA segments has been proposed by Matthijnssens and colleagues . In this new classification system, nucleotide identity cut-off percentages were defined to identify different genotypes for each of the 11 segments (Table 1). Likewise, a nomenclature for the comparison of complete rotavirus genomes was considered in which the notation Gx-P [x]-Ix-Rx-Cx-Mx-Ax-Nx-Tx-Ex-Hx (with x indicating the number of the genotype) Smoothened Agonist is used for the VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, and NSP5 encoding genes, respectively. In this new group A rotavirus classification system, the complete open reading frame (ORF) of a rotavirus gene is compared to other complete ORFs of cognate genes available in the GenBank database. selleck chemical If pairwise nucleotide see more identities between the gene of the novel strain under investigation (strain A) and the strains belonging to an established
genotype X are above the cut off value of that gene segment (Table 1), strain A can be assigned to genotype X. The exact relationship between the gene of strain A and cognate genes of all established genotypes, has to be obtained phylogenetically. When all the pairwise nucleotide identities between a gene
of the new strain B, and the cognate genes of Unoprostone all the established genotypes are below the cut-off value for that gene segment (Table 1), strain B may be the prototype of a new genotype . If only a partial ORF sequence of a rotavirus genome segment is available, assigning it to a specific genotype is less certain because the genotypic diversity across the ORF is not a constant value. Some regions of the ORF may be highly variable, while others may be more conserved. Since the cut-off percentage values for each of the 11 genome segments has been calculated based on entire ORFs, applying these cut-off percentages to only a part of the ORF, might lead to erroneous conclusions. In accordance with the recommendations of the RCWG, only under certain circumstances when all three of the following restrictions are obeyed, a partial gene sequence might be used to assign a rotavirus gene to an established genotype: (a) at least 50% of the ORF sequence should be determined; (b) at least 500 nucleotides of the ORF should be determined; and (c) identity between strain X and a strain belonging to an established genotype A should be at least 2% above the appropriate cut-off sequence (Table 1), before strain X can be assigned to genotype A. Table 1 Nucleotide identity percentage cutoff values defining genotypes for 11 rotavirus gene segments .