1). In fact, we have recently observed that isolated para-aortic dissemination (in the absence
of pelvic lymph node involvement) is generally very uncommon (≤5%), with the exception of patients with endometrioid Selleck PI3K inhibitor grade 2 or 3 cancer and myometrial invasion greater than 50%. Also, para-aortic metastases are uncommon in patients with endometrioid grade 3 cancer with early myometrial invasion (≤50%). In the presence of type II EC, omentectomy is performed (Fig. 1). However, random peritoneal biopsies, in the absence of macroscopic visible disease, are of limited diagnostic benefit. Interestingly, in a large analysis among high-risk and ultra-high-risk (grade 3 endometrioid, serous and clear cell) uterine cancers, we showed that lymphadenectomy as selleck chemicals llc well as extensive surgery did not provide survival advantages in patients with advanced-stage disease. In light of these findings, patients with a preoperative diagnosis of FIGO grade 1 or 2 endometrioid EC confined to the endometrium or with myometrial invasion less than 50% and tumor diameter of 2 cm or less do not undergo lymph node dissection at our institution. Moreover, from a practical standpoint, lymphadenectomy
may be omitted also in ultra-high-risk patients with stage IV disease (Fig. 1). A scoring system based on preoperative and operative parameters should be used to tailor surgery and reduce the rate of unnecessary lymphadenectomy. Several models have been described.[14, 19-24] Decision-making at Mayo Clinic is traditionally based on four variables during intraoperative frozen-section analysis: (i) primary tumor diameter;
(ii) FIGO grade; (iii) histological type; and (iv) depth of myometrial invasion. An investigation by our group, aimed at determining the reliability check of frozen-section analysis, suggested a high rate of clinical accordance (98.7%), with definitive pathological findings (permanent paraffin sections). Among 784 patients included, 10 women (1.3%) had a potential change in operation plan due to deviation in pathological results from frozen-section to permanent-paraffin analysis. This included changes in histological subtypes (n = 6, 0.7%), FIGO grade (n = 1, 0.12%) and myometrial invasion (n = 3, 0.38%). Although different studies from other institutions report a similarly high accuracy rate of intraoperative frozen section,[25, 26] a survey of the Society of Gynecologic Oncologists revealed that only 31% of gynecologic surgeons use frozen section in their decision making for EC management. For this reason, we recently showed that, in the absence of an accurate frozen section, preoperative biopsy (which is consistently available) and intraoperative tumor diameter (easily measured on fresh tissue and unchanged on final pathology) may reliably predict lymph node tumor spread.