26 +/- 6 3 and 6 81 +/- 4 4, respectively, p = 0 69) Conclusions

26 +/- 6.3 and 6.81 +/- 4.4, respectively, p = 0.69). Conclusions: The predicted cardiovascular risk of HIV-infected Koreans on HAART by FRS equation was low and similar Cisplatin research buy to that of age- and sex-matched healthy control persons. However, the possibility remains that actual cardiovascular events could be underestimated. The next step for predicting the cardiovascular risk is to calculate the Data Collection of Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) equation risks.”
“The possible systemic infectious consequences of prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are poorly documented in the literature. We assessed the frequency of postoperative prosthetic hip and knee infections

leading to bacteremia and investigated their associated factors among patients treated between

2005 and 2009. Among 633 patients with PJI, 62 (9.8%) also had positive blood cultures (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5-12.1). After complete investigations, the prosthesis was considered as the direct cause of bacteremia in 14 cases (2.2%; 95% CI 1.1-3.4). In the conditional logistic regression analysis, PJI leading to bacteremia was more frequently H 89 cell line observed in cases of relapses of a prior PJI (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.3, p = 0.07) and in patients with a C-reactive protein value upon admission >= 180 mg/l (aOR 4.5, p = 0.04). None of the 8 bacteremic patients treated with surgical debridement and prosthetic retention were cured from joint infection. These preliminary results raise concerns about the fact that debridement with prosthetic retention may not be an appropriate option in the context of PJI leading to bacteremia, contrary to PJI resulting from hematogenous seeding.”
“The diagnosis of amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is traditionally based on microscopy. However, the specificity of this method may be questioned, especially in areas where infections by E. histolytica

are rare. In the present study, a species-specific real-time PCR was used for the identification of the morphologically similar species WH-4-023 nmr E. histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Out of 15 microscopy-positive stool samples, all were negative for E. histolytica and positive for E. dispar. In 2 cases, a suspicion of amoebic liver abscesses was confirmed by detection of E. histolytica DNA in stored sample material. Microscopy alone is clearly insufficient for the detection of E. histolytica in a setting where this parasite is rare. Microscopy-positive stool samples should be further tested by species-specific tests to distinguish E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic parasite E. dispar. On specific suspicion of amoebiasis, such as the suspicion of amoebic liver abscesses, species-specific tests can be applied even after storage.”
“We describe the outbreak of a pan-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae strain in a neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 7 neonates developed bacteraemia (37% attack rate), of whom 3 died (43% case fatality rate).

Rather, coexistence requires interspecific differences in light t

Rather, coexistence requires interspecific differences in light transmissivity

through the crowns of adult trees. However, all the three mechanisms mentioned above can be interpreted within the framework of the model. Furthermore, many models of forest dynamics make use of shade tolerance as a key feature in describing successional dynamics. Despite its importance, however, shade tolerance does not have a commonly accepted quantitative definition. Selleckchem Poziotinib Here, a simple scheme is proposed where the relationship between shade tolerance, individual traits (growth and survival) and successional status is defined. This might have important implications in understanding the overall dynamics. Theoretical results have been compared with a number of studies carried out in North American forests. In particular, coexistence in beech-maple communities and the relation between shade tolerance and successional status in a beech-hemlock-birch community have been discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The genome of Pyrococcus abyssi contains two

open reading frames encoding proteins which had been previously predicted to be DNA ligases, Pab2002 and Pab1020. We show that while the former is indeed a DNA ligase, Pab1020 had no effect on the substrate deoxyoligo- ribonucleotides tested. Instead, Pab1020 catalyzes the nucleotidylation of oligo- ribonucleotides Epigenetics inhibitor in an ATP- dependent reaction, suggesting

that it is an RNA ligase. We have solved the BMS345541 mw structure of Pab1020 in complex with the ATP analog AMPPNP by single- wavelength anomalous dispersion ( SAD), elucidating a structure with high structural similarity to the catalytic domains of two RNA ligases from the bacteriophage T4. Additional carboxy- terminal domains are also present, and one of these mediates contacts with a second protomer, which is related by noncrystallographic symmetry, generating a homodimeric structure. These C- terminal domains are terminated by short domain swaps which themselves end within 5 A of the active sites of the partner molecules. Additionally, we show that the protein is indeed capable of circularizing RNA molecules in an ATP- dependent reaction. These structural and biochemical results provide an insight into the potential physiological roles of Pab1020.”
“There is substantial evidence that evolutionary diversification can occur in allopatric conditions through reduction in the degree of phenotypic plasticity when an isolated population encounters a novel, more stable environment. Plasticity is no longer favored in the new environment, either because it carries an inherent physiological cost or because it leads to production of suboptimal phenotypes. In order to explore the role of phenotypic plasticity in sympatric diversification, we modeled the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of Escherichia coli bacteria in batch cultures.

“Attentional deficits are a core symptom of schizophrenia

“Attentional deficits are a core symptom of schizophrenia. Post-mortem analyses of the brains of schizophrenics reveal

consistent abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons indicative of reduced cortical GABA transmission, raising the possibility that this BAY 1895344 supplier pathology contributes to attentional deficits. We examined whether blockade of prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline (BMI) impairs attention in rats using the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). For comparison, we also examined whether administration of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (MUS) would improve attention. In parallel, we examined the effects of both manipulations on activity in an open field and on motivation using the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) test. BMI increased PFC neuronal activity, as reflected by increased Fos immunolabeling, and impaired attention, as reflected by

decreased accuracy and increased omissions. Although increased omissions also may reflect reductions in locomotor activity or motivation, the overall pattern of effects does not support either of these interpretations: BMI did not affect locomotor activity, and it enhanced motivation in the ICSS test. MUS did not affect attention, although it increased impulsive behavior at a dose that suppressed PFC neuronal activity, as reflected by decreased Fos immunolabeling. These impulsivity effects are not due to altered locomotor activity (which was decreased) or motivation (which was not affected). Our data support the hypothesis that cortical GABA neurons Etomoxir manufacturer have an important role in regulating attention and may have direct implications ever for the treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 36, 1703-1713; doi:10.1038/npp.2011.51; published online 13 April 2011″
“The importance of the 2′-5′ oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)/RNase L and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR) pathways in host interferon induction resulting from virus infection in response to dsRNA has been well documented. In poxvirus

infections, the interactions between the vaccinia virus (VV) genes E3L and K3L, which target RNase L and PKR, respectively, serve to prevent the induction of the dsRNA-dependent induced interferon response in cell culture. To determine the importance of these host genes in controlling VV infections, mouse single-gene knockouts of RNase L and PKR and double-knockout mice were studied following intratracheal infection with VV, VV Delta K3L, or VV Delta E3L. VV caused lethal disease in all mouse strains. The single-knockout animals were more susceptible than wild-type animals, while the RNase L(-/-) PKR(-/-) mice were the most susceptible. VV Delta E3L infections of wild-type mice were asymptomatic, demonstrating that E3L plays a critical role in controlling the host immune response. RNase L(-/-) mice showed no disease, whereas 20% of the PKR(-/-) mice succumbed at a dose of 10(8) PFU.

“The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded immune evasion prote

“The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded immune evasion protein BNLF2a inhibits the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), thereby downregulating HLA class I expression at the cell surface. As a consequence, recognition of EBV-infected cells by cytotoxic T cells is impaired. Here, we show that sequence polymorphism of the BNLF2a protein is observed with natural EBV isolates, with evidence for positive selection. Despite these mutations, the BNLF2a variants efficiently reduce cell surface HLA class I levels. This conservation of BNLF2a function during evolution of EBV implies an important role for the viral TAP inhibitor in preventing T cell recognition

during viral infection.”
“Introduction: The PET tracer, 1-O-(4-(2-fluoroethyl-carbamoyloxymethyl)-2-nitrophenyl)-O-beta-D-glucopyronuronate ([F-18]FEAnGA), was recently developed for PET imaging of extracellularl learn more beta-glucuronidase (beta-GUS). However,[F-18]FEAnGA exhibited https://www.selleckchem.com/products/BI6727-Volasertib.html rapid renal clearance, which resulted in a relatively low tracer uptake in the tumor. To improve the pharmacokinetics of [F-18]FEAnGA, we developed its more lipophilic methyl ester analog, [F-18]FEAnGA-Me.

Methods: [F-18]FEAnGA-Me was obtained by alkylation of the O-protected glucuronide methyl ester precursor with [F-18]-fluoroethylamine

([F-18]FEA), followed by removal of the acetate protecting groups with NaOMe/MeOH. The PET tracer was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo studies.

Results: [F-18]FEAnGA-Me was obtained in 5%-10% overall radiochemical yield. others It is 10-fold less hydrophilic than [F-18]FEAnGA

and it is stable in PBS and in the presence of beta-GUS for 1 h. However, in the presence of esterase or plasma [F-18]FEAnGA-Me is converted to [F-18]FEAnGA, and subsequently converted to [F-18]FEA by beta-GUS. MicroPET studies in Wistar rats bearing a C6 glioma and a sterile inflammation showed similar uptake in tumors after injection of either [F-18]FEAnGA-Me or [F-18]FEAnGA. Both tracers had a rapid two-phase clearance of total plasma radioactivity with a half-life of 1 and 8 min. The [F-18]FEAnGA fraction generated from [F-18]FEAnGA-Me by in vivo hydrolysis had a circulation half-life of 1 and 11 min in plasma. Similar distribution volume in the viable part of the tumor was found after injection of either [F-18]FEAnGA-Me or [F-18]FEAnGA.

Conclusion: The imaging properties of [F-18]FEAnGA-Me were not significantly better than those of [F-18]FEAnGA. Therefore, other strategies should be applied in order to improve the kinetics of these tracers. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Previous studies have shown that intraperitoneal injections of thioperamide, an imidazole-based H-3 receptor inverse agonist that enhances histamine release in the brain, potentiate cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. The present study examined the involvement of the histaminergic system in these effects of thioperamide in mice.

The results are in support of the validity of the original anxiet

The results are in support of the validity of the original anxiety and depression subscales of the HADS and demonstrate the importance of evaluating item wording effects when examining the factor structure of a questionnaire. The results would also justify the use of the HADS as a single scale of emotional distress. However, even though the three-factor solution fit the data, alternative scales should be used if the purpose of the assessment is to measure stress symptoms separately from anxiety and depression. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“During the past few years, the development of effective, empirical technologies for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias

has exceeded the pace at which detailed knowledge of the underlying biology has accumulated. As a result, although some clinical arrhythmias can be cured with techniques such as catheter ablation, R406 research buy drug treatment DNA Damage inhibitor and prediction of the risk of sudden death remain fairly primitive. The identification of key candidate genes for monogenic arrhythmia syndromes shows that to bring basic biology to the clinic is a powerful approach. Increasingly sophisticated experimental models and methods of measurement,

including stem cell-based models of human cardiac arrhythmias, are being deployed to study how perturbations in several biologic pathways can result in an arrhythmia-prone heart. The biology of arrhythmia is largely quantifiable, which allows for systematic analysis that could transform treatment strategies that are often still empirical into management based on molecular evidence.”
“Neuroglobin is a hypoxia-inducible, neuroprotective protein related to myoglobin and hemoglobin, but little is known about its neurodevelopmental expression or function. Sclareol To begin to explore these issues, we measured neuroglobin protein expression during neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells in vitro and in the neurogenic subventricular

zone of adult rats in vivo. Neuroglobin protein expression was barely detectable by western blotting in human embryonic stem cells, but was readily demonstrable in neural stem cells, and was further induced upon differentiation to neurons. In the adult subventricular zone, neuroglobin expression coincided with that of the neuronal lineage marker doublecortin, but not with vimentin or glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings suggest that neuroglobin is expressed early in the course of neuronal differentiation and may, therefore, have a role in neurodevelopment. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Resilience is frequently viewed as an indicator of good adjustment following adversity such as traumatic events. Connor and Davidson (2003) developed a brief self-report scale to quantify resilience over 1000 participants. We collected the data from individuals who are exposed to devastating earthquakes that occurred in 1999 in Turkey.

89) Further analyses showed that the 4-variable MDRD equation ha

89). Further analyses showed that the 4-variable MDRD equation had higher NPV (64%) but lower PPV (89%) than the see more other tests (NPV 40-49%, PPV 92-100%), for identifying patients whose combined clearance was <15 ml/min.

Conclusion: The 4-variable MDRD formula is currently the best available prediction equation for GFR, but will nevertheless over estimate residual renal function when

this is significantly impaired in up to 36% cases. Collection of 24 h urine samples may still have a role in the assessment of patients with stages 4 and 5 CKD.”
“Machado-Joseph disease, also called spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (MJD/SCA3), is a hereditary and neurodegenerative movement disorder caused by ataxin-3 GSK1904529A with a pathological polyglutamine stretch (mutant ataxin-3). Seven transgenic mouse models expressing full-length human mutant ataxin-3 throughout the brain have been generated and are compared in this review. They vary in the corresponding transgenic

DNA constructs with differences that include the encoded human ataxin-3 isoform(s), number of polyglutamine(s), and the promoter driving transgene expression. The behaviors/signs evaluated in most models are body weight, balance/coordination, locomotor activity, gait, limb position, and age at death. The pathology analyzed includes presence of neuronal intranuclear inclusions, and qualitative evidence of neurodegeneration. On the basis of striking similarities selleck chemicals llc in age-range of detection and number of behavior/sign abnormalities and pathology, all but 1 mouse model could be readily sorted into groups with high, intermediate, and low severity of phenotype. Stereological analysis of neurodegeneration was performed in the same brain regions in 2 mouse models; the corresponding results are consistent with the classification of the mouse models.”
“Objectives: This is a report to update our experience with repairs of the ascending and transverse arch, with an emphasis on the protective measures, including retrograde cerebral perfusion and blood flow and neurologic monitoring.

Methods: Retrospective data were collected from January 1991 to

February 2010, and analysis was conducted on 1193 patients who had aneurysms involving the ascending aorta and arch.

Results: The 30-day mortality rate was 9.3%, but with a normal glomerular filtration rate, the mortality rate was 3%. In univariate analysis of the risk factors for death, the factors were advancing age of greater than 72 years (mortality, 14.8%; P = .002), the presence of coronary artery disease (mortality, 13.5%; P = .02), aortic pathology of acute dissection (mortality, 13.9%; P = .004), the emergency nature of the operation (mortality, 16.1%; P = .0001), and renal function in the lowest 3 quartiles of glomerular filtration rate (mortality, 6.9%, 10%, and 18.3%; P = .03, .0005, and .0001, respectively, with decreasing glomerular filtration rate).

fMRI data revealed that epsilon

4+ subjects, compared to

fMRI data revealed that epsilon

4+ subjects, compared to epsilon 4-subjects, predominantly showed an increase of neural activity specific to encoding of items and their spatial context in prefrontal, temporal and parietal regions. In contrast, epsilon 4+ subjects showed activity decreases in the right amygdala during successful item recognition and in the prefrontal cortex bilaterally during spatial context retrieval when compared to epsilon 4- subjects. While the activity increases during encoding may reflect compensatory activity in the attempt to maintain normal performance, the decreases during retrieval indicate incipient neural decline in epsilon 4+ subjects. These data highlight that preclinical LCL161 mw ApoE-related changes in neural activity are not unidirectional but dissociate depending on the memory phase, i.e., encoding

or retrieval. Epigenetics inhibitor (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Dried blood spot (DBS) samples are a convenient way to collect infant blood for HIV-1 diagnostic testing. Minimizing the risk of false positives is critical for diagnostic tests. A protocol for processing and testing DBS for infant HIV-1 diagnosis was evaluated to identify the rate and source of false-positive results. DES were created on Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) filter paper with 500 copies/punch (high) or 5000 copies/punch (very high) concentrations of HIV-1 DNA. Blank

discs of filter paper punched after DBS samples were tested for carry-over of HIV-1 DNA using nested PCR for the pol region. No false positives were detected in the 40 series using high concentration DBS. In series with very high concentrations of HIV-1, 8/246 (3%) reactions were falsely positive. When tubes were spun prior to opening, contact with caps minimized, and spaces left between lanes of the gel, repeat second-round PCR of five false positives resulted in only one repeat false-positive PCR. This study outlines procedures that minimize false-positive results for nested PCR of HIV-1 DNA from DBS. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Sensorimotor gating, as measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle, is deficient in human beings with schizophrenia and is greatly see more reduced in rats after bilateral infusion of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) into the ventral hippocampus (VH). The disruption of PPI by bilateral VH NMDA infusion is blocked by bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) lesions, but not by bilateral lesions of the fornix, which is the principal output pathway of the hippocampal formation of the VH. Tract-tracing studies have shown the presence of additional nonfornical pathways by which the VH and neighboring structures of the amygdala may reach forebrain regions that regulate PPI, including the mPFC.

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Homologs buy SU5402 of the essential large tegument protein pUL36 of herpes simplex virus 1 are conserved throughout the Herpesviridae, complex with pUL37, and form part of the capsid-associated “”inner”" tegument. pUL36 is crucial for transport of the incoming capsid to and docking at the nuclear pore early after infection

as well as for virion maturation in the cytoplasm. Its extreme C terminus is essential for pUL36 function interacting with pUL25 on nucleocapsids to start tegumentation (K. Coller, J. Lee, A. Ueda, and G. Smith, J. Virol. 81: 11790-11797, 2007). However, controversy exists about the cellular compartment in which pUL36 is added to the nascent virus particle. We generated monospecific rabbit antisera against four different regions spanning

most of pUL36 of the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PrV). By immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, we then analyzed the intracellular location of pUL36 after transient expression and during PrV infection. While reactivities of all four sera were comparable, none of them showed specific intranuclear staining during PrV infection. In immunoelectron microscopy, neither of the sera stained primary enveloped virions Selleckchem FRAX597 in the perinuclear cleft, whereas extracellular mature virus particles were extensively labeled. However, transient expression of pUL36 alone resulted in partial localization to the nucleus, presumably mediated by nuclear localization signals (NLS) whose functionality was demonstrated by fusion of the putative NLS

to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and GFP-tagged pUL25. Since PrV pUL36 can enter the nucleus when expressed in isolation, the NLS may be masked during infection. Thus, our studies show that during PrV infection pUL36 is not detectable in the nucleus or on primary enveloped virions, correlating ZD1839 molecular weight with the notion that the tegument of mature virus particles, including pUL36, is acquired in the cytosol.”
“The volumes of the neuronal nucleus and the cell body in the left posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) of adult ovariectomized (OVX) female rats submitted to different hormonal therapies were studied here, aiming to reveal possible influence of substitutive sex steroids in these morphological parameters. One week following ovariectomy and at the end of treatments, brains were cut to semi-thin sections (1 mu m) and stained with 1% toluidine blue for stereological estimations, carried out using the Cavalieri method and the technique of point counting. Both the volume of the neuronal nucleus and the soma showed a statistically significant difference when comparing the data among OVX females treated with vehicle (V), estradiol (EB) alone, EB plus progesterone (EB + P) or P alone [n = 5 rats in each group; one-way ANOVA test, P < 0.01 in both cases].

The primary outcome, proximal leg deep-vein thrombosis, was diagn

The primary outcome, proximal leg deep-vein thrombosis, was diagnosed on compression ultrasonography performed within 2 days after admission, twice weekly, and as clinically indicated. Additional testing for venous thromboembolism was performed as clinically indicated. Data were analyzed Selleck SU5402 according to the intention-to-treat principle.


There was no significant between-group difference in the rate of proximal leg deep-vein thrombosis, which occurred in 96 of 1873 patients (5.1%) receiving dalteparin versus 109 of 1873 patients

(5.8%) receiving unfractionated heparin (hazard ratio in the dalteparin group, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 1.23; P = 0.57). The proportion of patients with pulmonary emboli was significantly lower with dalteparin (24 patients, 1.3%) than with unfractionated heparin (43 patients, 2.3%) (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.88; P = 0.01). There was no significant between-group difference in the rates of major bleeding (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.34; P

= 0.98) or death in the hospital (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.05; P = 0.21). In prespecified per-protocol analyses, the results were similar to those of the main analyses, but fewer patients receiving dalteparin had heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (hazard ratio, 0.27; S63845 ic50 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.98; P = 0.046).


Among critically ill patients, dalteparin was not superior to unfractionated heparin in decreasing the incidence of proximal deep-vein thrombosis.”
“The distinction between T-cell-mediated

rejection (TCMR) and other causes of kidney transplant dysfunction such as tubular necrosis requires biopsy. Subclinical rejection (SCR), an established risk factor MM-102 for chronic allograft dysfunction, can only be diagnosed by protocol biopsy. A specific non-invasive biomarker to monitor immunological graft status would facilitate diagnosis and treatment of common transplantation-related complications. To identify possible markers, we measured urinary mRNA levels of several cytolytic proteins by quantitative PCR. Our cohort of 70 renal transplant recipients had biopsy proven type I and type II TCMR, acute tubular necrosis, SCR, calcineurin inhibitortoxicity, cytomegalovirus infection, and stable graft function with normal histology. Granzyme A (GzmA) mRNA was significantly higher in subclinical and acute cellular rejection compared to patients with stable grafts or those with tubular necrosis with 80% sensitivity and up to 100% specificity. Granzyme B and perforin mRNA levels could significantly discriminate acute rejection from stable or tubular necrosis, but were not significantly elevated during SCR.

All participants with daily and weekly incontinence (29%) complet

All participants with daily and weekly incontinence (29%) completed the

Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, an incontinence specific quality of life measure. The health maintenance organization’s inpatient and outpatient electronic databases were used to calculate a Charlson comorbidity index score for each participant. ANCOVA was used to produce a model adjusting for sociodemographic variables, comorbidity and incontinence frequency. selleck chemicals The same model was run for each of 4 racial groupings to examine differences by race/ethnicity.

Results: Urinary incontinence is significantly associated with a decreased quality of life and those with more frequent incontinence have significantly lower quality of life scores. In our model the Charlson score, an objective measure of comorbidity based on hospital and physician records, also has a significant negative impact on quality of life. When comorbidity is controlled, GW3965 purchase incontinence frequency continues to have a significant negative association with quality of life except among the sickest women. For women with the greatest extent of comorbidity, incontinence frequency is not significantly associated with negative quality of

life outcomes. We did not find clear patterns of variation by race.

Conclusions: Urinary incontinence and comorbidity each have an independent INCB018424 and significant role in reducing quality of life outcomes for all but the sickest women.”
“OBJECTIVE: The interpeduncular cistern, including the

retroinfundibular area, is one of the most challenging regions to approach surgically. The pituitary gland and the infundibulum guard the region when an endonasal route is undertaken. Superior transposition of the pituitary gland and infundibulum is described as a functional means to access this complex region through a fully endoscopic, completely transnasal route.

METHODS: Ten consecutive patients in whom a pituitary transposition was performed during an expanded endonasal approach at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center for resection of retroinfundibular lesions were reviewed. The series consisted of seven men and three women with a mean age of 44.4 years. Pathology consisted of four craniopharyngiomas, four chordomas, and two petroclival meningiomas.

RESULTS: Five patients (50%) underwent total resection of the tumor, three patients (30%) underwent near total resection (>95% removal), and two patients (20%) had partial resection of petroclival meningiomas with the goal of optic apparatus decompression. All four patients with visual deficits recovered their vision completely. There was no neurological deterioration. Eight patients had normal pituitary function preoperatively, seven of whom (87.