Thromboxane A2 is one of the cyclooxygenase products derived from arachidonic
acid, and acts on its cognate G protein-coupled receptor [thromboxane receptor (TP)]. We show here that TP in the striatum locally facilitates dopamine overflow. Intrastriatal injection of a TP agonist increased extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum as measured by in vivo microdialysis. TP stimulation also augmented electrically evoked dopamine overflow from striatal slices. Conversely, TP deficiency reduced dopamine overflow evoked by N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) and acetylcholine in striatal slices. TP immunostaining showed that TP is enriched in vascular endothelial cells. Pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and genetic deletion of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) suppressed NMDA/acetylcholine-induced Dabrafenib cell line dopamine ITF2357 overflow. This involvement of NO was abolished in TP-deficient slices, suggesting a role for eNOS-derived NO synthesis in TP-mediated dopamine overflow. As a functional consequence of TP-mediated dopamine increase, a TP agonist suppressed GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents in medium spiny neurons through a D2-like receptor-dependent mechanism. Finally, TP is involved in sucrose intake, a dopamine-dependent motivational behavior. These data suggest that TP stimulation in the striatum locally
facilitates dopamine overflow evoked by synaptic inputs via NO synthesis in endothelial cells. “
“Information processing in the vertebrate brain is thought to be mediated through distributed neural networks, but it is still unclear how sensory stimuli are encoded and detected by these networks, and what role synaptic inhibition CHIR-99021 ic50 plays in this process. Here we used a collision avoidance behavior in Xenopus tadpoles as a model for stimulus discrimination and recognition. We showed that the visual system of the tadpole is selective for behaviorally relevant looming stimuli, and that the detection of these
stimuli first occurs in the optic tectum. By comparing visually guided behavior, optic nerve recordings, excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents, and the spike output of tectal neurons, we showed that collision detection in the tadpole relies on the emergent properties of distributed recurrent networks within the tectum. We found that synaptic inhibition was temporally correlated with excitation, and did not actively sculpt stimulus selectivity, but rather it regulated the amount of integration between direct inputs from the retina and recurrent inputs from the tectum. Both pharmacological suppression and enhancement of synaptic inhibition disrupted emergent selectivity for looming stimuli. Taken together these findings suggested that, by regulating the amount of network activity, inhibition plays a critical role in maintaining selective sensitivity to behaviorally-relevant visual stimuli.