Therefore in this study we defined land abandonment as a transition from agricultural land (observed in 1993) to natural regrowth of shrub (observed in 2006) on condition that the parcel was not taken again in production in 2014. Pixels with observed transitions such as A-A-S and A-A-F (Table 1) of which it is not sure that they are permanently abandoned were classified into the group ‘Other
change In order to understand the observed land cover change patterns, socio-economic and biophysical data were collected at the level of villages. In Sa Pa district, the majority of the ethnic groups lives in ethnically homogeneous villages (bản or thôn in Vietnamese). Only 4 of the 85 villages are inhabited by multiple ethnic buy CAL-101 http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-263.html groups, and they are typically located in the commune (xã) centres. Therefore, the village level
is considered as the most detailed and relevant scale level for the analysis of human–environment interactions (Castella et al., 2002). In Vietnam, however, village boundaries are not officially delineated because the commune is the lowest administrative unit (Castella et al., 2005). Therefore, the village boundaries (n = 85) in Sa Pa district were delineated by means of participatory mapping following the procedure described by Castella et al. (2005) and Meyfroidt (2009). Cadastral officers were offered a 1/10.000 scale colour print of the 2006 VHR-SPOT 4 image (printed in true colours, 5 m resolution) and were asked to draw the village borders on a transparent sheet on top. Table 2 and Table 3 show all the variables that were collected at Phosphoglycerate kinase the village level. Socio-economic variables were
derived from the yearbook of 1989 and 2006, and from the Vietnam Rural, Agricultural, and Fishery Census conducted in 2006 under the leadership of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery Statistics and the General Statistics Office with support from the World Bank. The original census data available at household level were aggregated to village level, and the following variables were calculated: the percentage of households involved in tourism (%), the ethnic group (categorical), the population growth rate (%/year), the poverty rate expressed as percentage of households under the national poverty threshold of 2400,000 VND/person/year and the involvement in cardamom cultivation (ha/household) (Table 3). In order to evaluate the potential effect of the land use policy inside and outside the National park, one more categorical variable (inside/outside the park) was taken into account to examine the effect of public policy.