Immunohistochemical staining Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded

Immunohistochemical staining Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded clear cell renal carcinoma tissue blocks were from the The First Clinical Hospital of Jilin University. Tissue blocks were sectioned and deparaffinized in xylene and rehydrated through a graded ethanol series. Tissue slides were then subjected to antigen retrieval by boiling in 0.01 M sodium citrate buffer (pH 6) in a microwave oven for 10 min. Endogenous peroxidase was blocked by incubation for 10 min in 3% hydrogen peroxide in methanol. Finally, the reactions were detected using the DAB detection kit (Dako). Anti-MYST1 and acetylated H4K16 polyclonal antibodies were used at a 1:500 dilution. MYST1 protein expression

status and the histone H4K16 acetylation levels were estimated #selleck chemicals randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# in a four-step scale (none, weak, moderate, strong). The determination criteria

are shown below: score 0 = none, no staining or nuclear staining <10% of tumor cells; score 1 = weak, partial or weak complete nuclear staining >10% of tumor cells; score 2 = moderate complete nuclear staining >10% of tumor cells; score 3 = strong and complete nuclear staining in >10% of tumor cells [24]. Transient transfection Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, renal cell carcinomas 786–0 and OS-RC-2 cells were cultured in 6 well tissue culture plates (~2 × 105 cells/well) in DMEM containing 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics. The cells were transiently transfected with 0.25~2 μg of hMOF cDNAs TPX-0005 in vitro using polyethylenimine

(PEI). At 48 hrs post-transfection, cells were harvested and lysed for immunoblot and RT-PCR analysis. Statistical analysis The expression difference of genes and proteins between ccRCC and normal tissues were statistically analyzed. Statistical analysis was completed with SPSS 17.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago IL). Statistical comparisons were analyzed using the student’s t-test. Values of P < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results Downregulation of hMOF mRNA in primary renal cell carcinoma tissues In order to know whether the hMOF is involved in the pathogenesis of primary RCC or not, we first examined the mRNA levels of hMOF and other hypoxia signature genes including CA9, VEGF and HIF1α in 4 random cases of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase newly diagnosed ccRCC (Figure 1A) by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). As shown in Figure 1B, the gene expression levels of hMOF were markedly decreased in all ccRCC tissues compared to matched normal tissues (p<0.001). In contrast, CA9 expression levels were significantly increased in all ccRCC tissues (p<0.01). However, no significant difference was observed in VEGF and HIF1α expression. Additional 16 paired clinical ccRCC and matched normal tissues were used to further validate the frequent downregulation of hMOF mRNA expression in primary ccRCC. Analysis of performed mRNA expression of 16 samples revealed significant (>2-fold decreased) downregulation of hMOF mRNA in 87.

Cancer cells activated by TLR signals can release cytokines and c

Cancer cells activated by TLR signals can release cytokines and chemokines that recruit and optimize immune cells to release further cytokines and chemokines. Tanespimycin in vitro The result is an aberrant cytokine profile associated with immune tolerance, cancer progression and propagation of the tumor microenvironment. DAMPs derived from injured normal epithelial cells and necrotic cancer cells appear to be present

at significant levels in the tumor microenvironment, and their stimulation of specific TLRs might foster chronic inflammation. This mechanism is complex and thus far not well understood; however, it is clear that carcinogenesis, cancer progression, and site-specific metastasis are related to interactions between cancer cells, immune cells, DAMPs and PAMPs through TLR signals in the tumor microenvironment. Better understanding of these signals selleck chemicals and pathways will lead to development of novel therapeutic approaches to a wide variety of cancers. Acknowledgement This study is funded by NIH, National Cancer Institute Project II PO CA029605 and CA012582 (DSBH), Weil Family Fund (Los Angeles, CA), and the Leslie and Susan Gonda (Goldschmied) Foundation (Los Angeles). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which

permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. References 1. Mantovani A, Allavena P, Sica A et al (2008) Cancer-related inflammation. Nature 454:436–444PubMedCrossRef 2. O’Neill LA (2008) When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-like receptor signal TPX-0005 transduction. Immunity 29:12–20PubMedCrossRef 3. Curtin JF, Liu N, Candolfi M et al (2009) HMGB1 mediates endogenous TLR2 activation and brain tumor regression. PLoS Med 6:e10PubMedCrossRef 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase 4. Fukata M, Chen A, Vamadevan AS et al (2007) Toll-like receptor-4 promotes the development of colitis-associated colorectal tumors. Gastroenterology

133:1869–1881PubMedCrossRef 5. Goto Y, Arigami T, Kitago M et al (2008) Activation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, and 4 on human melanoma cells induces inflammatory factors. Mol Cancer Ther 7:3642–3653PubMedCrossRef 6. He W, Liu Q, Wang L et al (2007) TLR4 signaling promotes immune escape of human lung cancer cells by inducing immunosuppressive cytokines and apoptosis resistance. Mol Immunol 44:2850–2859PubMedCrossRef 7. Ilvesaro JM, Merrell MA, Swain TM et al (2007) Toll like receptor-9 agonists stimulate prostate cancer invasion in vitro. Prostate 67:774–781PubMedCrossRef 8. Kim WY, Lee JW, Choi JJ et al (2008) Increased expression of Toll-like receptor 5 during progression of cervical neoplasia. Int J Gynecol Cancer 18:300–305PubMedCrossRef 9.

Our data supports previous literature, suggesting a 7–10% increas

Our data supports previous literature, suggesting a 7–10% increase in VO2peak during the first three week training phase and a 3–4.5% increase following the second three week session. While both groups

significantly improved in VO2peak and VO2TTE from pre- to mid-testing, only the β-alanine group demonstrated significant improvements from mid- to post-testing (Table 1). The use of high-intensity exercise as a training modality has been shown to stimulate acute and chronic physiological adaptations (cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory and neural), which ultimately lead to improved performance [34, 37, 41]. The increases in VO2peak, VO2TTE, and VT reported in the current study are in line with other studies, which Selleckchem Gemcitabine have suggested that the improvements in aerobic

performance are attributable to a reduction in anaerobic ATP production, resulting from an increased contribution of aerobic energy production find more at higher intensity workloads [42, 43]. The greater reliance on aerobic metabolism for energy has been further linked to an up-regulation of various glycolytic enzymes (phosphofructokinase, hexokinase, citrate synthetase, and sodium potassium ATPase) [42, 44–47], as well as with increased mitochondrial density and improved blood flow due to increased capillarization [44, 45]. These improvements, in combination with an enhanced ability to buffer H+, may provide some explanation into the greater improvements in the second three-week training phase, in the BA group only. Although blood pH levels were not measured directly, support from training volume (Figure 2A) and training time (Figure 2B), demonstrate that participants supplementing with β-alanine engaged in longer, more intense training sessions, possibly leading Adenosine to greater adaptations. Improvements in TWD In addition to augmenting VO2peak, VO2TTE and VT, the HIIT program utilized in the current study demonstrated significant improvements in TWD (Table 1). Interestingly, the increases in total work

performed in the current study were greater than in previously reported improvements in TWD following HIIT alone [48–50], with both groups demonstrating a 50–53% improvement during the first three weeks of training and the β-alanine group showing a 32% increase compared to the 18% increase in the placebo group, after the second three-week training phase. In support, Kim et al. [21] demonstrated significantly greater increases in TWD in highly trained cyclists after a 12-week β-alanine check details supplementation and endurance training program, compared to training only. In addition, Hill et al. [6] also demonstrated significant improvements in TWD (13%) on a cycle ergometer following four weeks of β-alanine supplementation, without training. While the data appear to support the use of β-alanine supplementation to augment TWD, with and without training, the previously mentioned studies utilized highly trained participants, compared to an un-trained population in the current study.

As an example, the radiation dose to the fetus for a plain abdomi

As an example, the radiation dose to the fetus for a plain abdominal radiograph

averages 0.1–0.3 rads, while a CT of the pelvis and abdomen yields PRIMA-1MET ic50 up to 5 rads of fetal exposure [26]. In any case, the health and life of the mother takes priority over the concerns for the fetus and judicious use of radiation may help make an early diagnosis with optimal outcome for both the mother and the fetus. The management of intestinal obstruction and perforation in pregnant women is pretty much similar to that of non-pregnant women. The basis of therapy is early surgical intervention [27]. Surgery should be performed via midline vertical laparotomy. In the third trimester, if sufficient intestinal exposure cannot be obtained due to enlarged uterus, a caesarean section must be carried out [28]. The entire bowel should be examined for other areas of obstruction. Intestinal viability should be assessed cautiously and segmental resection with or without anastomosis is often necessary [27]. Conclusions Sigmoid

volvulus complicating pregnancy is very rare condition with significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Timely diagnosis mandates high index of clinical suspicion in patients presenting with abdominal pain, distension and absolute constipation. Hesitancy in getting X-rays in view of pregnant situation must be avoided and appropriate MDV3100 cell line management must be defined. Delay in diagnosis and treatment beyond 48 hours results in increased fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Review of the available literature emphasizes the selleck importance of early diagnosis and timely intervention to minimize maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Consent A written informed consent was obtained from the next of kin of the patient for publication of this Case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.

Abiraterone clinical trial References 1. Perdue PW, Johnson HW, Stafford PW: Intestinal obstruction complicating pregnancy. Am J Surg 1992, 164:384–388.PubMedCrossRef 2. Kolusari A, Kurdoglu M, Adali E, Yildizhan R, Sahin HG, Kotan C: Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy and puerperium: a case series. Cases Journal 2009, 2:9275.PubMedCrossRef 3. Vo TM, Gyaneshwar R, Mayer C: Concurrent sigmoid volvulus and herniation through broad ligament defect during pregnancy: case report and literature review. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2008, 34:658–662.PubMedCrossRef 4. Iwamoto I, Miwa K, Fujino T, Douchi T: Perforated colon volvulus coiling around the uterus in a pregnant woman with a history of severe constipation. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2007, 33:731–733.PubMedCrossRef 5. Sascha Dua R, Rothnie ND, Gray EA: Sigmoid volvulus in the Puerperium. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2007, 97:195.PubMedCrossRef 6. Machado NO, Machado LS: Sigmoid volvulus complicating pregnancy managed by resection and primary anastomosis; case report with literature review.

Amplified DNA was gel-purified

with a QIAEX II gel extrac

Amplified DNA was gel-purified

with a QIAEX II gel extraction kit (Qiagen, Santa Clarita, Calif.) and labeled with the Biotin High Prime System (Roche Applied Science). Genomic DNA was purified using a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide miniprep protocol [76], digested with EcoRI and PstI, separated by electrophoresis in a 0.8% agarose gel, and transferred onto a BrightStar-Plus ��-Nicotinamide clinical trial nylon membrane (Ambion, Inc., Austin, TX) in 0.4 M NaOH. The membranes were pre-hybridized and hybridized at 58°C in a solution containing 5 × SSC [80], 4 × Denhardt’s solution [80], 0.1% SDS, and 300 μg per ml of denatured salmon sperm DNA (Sigma). After hybridization, the membranes were washed twice in 2 × SSC, 0.1% SDS at room temperature, twice in 0.2 × SSC, 0.1% SDS at room temperature, and once in 0.2 × SSC, 0.1% SDS at 60°C. Lytic assays Full-length hol genes from strains Pf-5 and Q8r1-96 were amplified by using KOD Hot Start DNA polymerase (Novagen, Inc.) and oligonucleotide primer pairs holupPf5 (5′ AGG GAC CTC TAG AAA CAT CGT

TA 3′) – holowPf5 (5′ TTT TGG ATC CGG TGA GTC AAG GCT G 3′) and hol-xba (5′ GAC CAG TCT AGA CAT GCT CAT CA 3′) – hol-low (5′ TTT TGG ATC CGC GGT ATC GCT T 3′), respectively. Full-length lys genes from Pf-5 and Q8r1-96 were amplified by using primer sets lysupPf5 (5′ CGC CAT TCT AGA TTA CTG AAC AA 3′) – lyslowPf5 (5′ TTT TGG ATC CGC AGG ACC TTC AGA C 3′) and lysQ8-up (5′ CGG ACA TCT AGA ATC ATG CAC TTG 3′) – tail13 (5′ GCC GCT TGG GTG ATT TGA TT

3′), respectively. The cycling program included a 2-min initial denaturation at 94°C followed by 35 cycles of 94°C for 15 sec, 59°C this website for 30 sec, selleck inhibitor and 68°C for 1 min, and a final extension at 68°C for 3 min. PCR products were gel-purified and cloned into the SmaI site of the plasmid vector pCR-Blunt (Invitrogen) under the control of the T7 promoter. The resultant plasmids were single-pass sequenced to confirm the integrity of cloned genes and electroporated into E. coli Rosetta/pLysS (Novagen) with a Gene Pulser II system (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, Calif.). Plasmid-bearing E. coli clones were selected overnight on LB agar supplemented with ampicillin and chloramphenicol, and suspended in 2xYT broth supplemented with antibiotics to give an OD600 of 0.1. After incubation with shaking for one hour at room temperature, gene expression was induced in the broth cultures with 3 mM IPTG. The induced cultures were incubated with shaking for another 5 hours and the cell density was monitored by measuring OD600 every 30 min. To disrupt cell membranes in endolysin-expressing cultures, a drop of chloroform was added after four hours of induction. Two independent repetitions were performed with each strain. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to Dr. Olga FRAX597 mw Mavrodi for help with the screening of Q8r1-96 gene library for ssh6-positive cosmid clones.

Synthesis of CC49-QDs Preparation of CC49-QDs antibody (Ab) probe

Synthesis of AZD1080 CC49-QDs Preparation of CC49-QDs antibody (Ab) probes was performed according to instructions of the QD Antibody Conjugation Kits [23]. Briefly, 13.5 μl of EDC and 13.5 μl of NHS were mixed selleckchem with a 50-μl CdTe QD solution and shaken for 0.5 h at room temperature. Then, 594 μl of CC49 monoclonal antibodies was added, resulting in a CdTe to antibody ratio of 1:4. Another 2 h was needed for the reaction at room temperature followed by centrifugation. The centrifugation was done four times using a 100K ultra filter at 5,000 rpm for

15 min. Each time, liquids at the lower strata were discarded, and the supernatant products were diluted by 200 μl of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) before subsequent centrifugation. The final product was diluted with PBS (pH 7.4) and stored in a refrigerator at 4°C. QD and CC49-QDs electron microscopy and spectrum analysis The prepared primary QDs and CC49-QDs were separately diluted in deionized water, and Cell Cycle inhibitor several drops were dropped onto two pieces of carbon films supported by a copper mesh. When the water volatilized,

they were put under the electron microscope adjusted to a 200-V stem mode for observation. Diluted QDs and CC49-QDs were put under a spectrofluorimeter with a 450-nm excitation wavelength and a 1-mm slit. The curves of the spectra were drawn by recording the intensities of each nanometer of emission light between 550 and 800 nm. Gel permeation high-performance liquid chromatography The CC49 and CC49-QDs were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) gel filtration. Samples were injected onto a ZORBAX GF-450 (9.5 × 250, 6-μm size, Agilent) exclusion column connected in a series with 67 mM phosphate and 100 mM

KCl buffer (pH 6.8) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The absorption was monitored learn more at 280 nm [24, 25]. Immunohistochemical detection of TAG-72 One milliliter of MGC80-3 cells and GES-1 at a concentration of 2 × 104 cells/ml were separately seeded into each well of a 24-well plate containing a glass cover slip. After 24 h of culture, the cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 20 min. Streptavidin peroxidase (SP) immunohistochemical staining was performed according to instructions of the Sunhis-H kits. Briefly, the cover slips were incubated with 3% H2O2 deionized water for 10 min, and washed with PBS two times (each for 3 min). Consequently, the cover slips were incubated with protein blocking working liquid at room temperature for 5 min before the CC49 monoclonal antibody (1:100) was added. After incubation overnight at 4°C, the cover slips were washed with PBS three times (each for 3 min), and then biotin-labeled goat antimouse immunoglobulin G was added. After 10 min, PBS was also used to wash the cover slips for three times (each for 5 min). Then, the streptavidin conjugate of horseradish peroxidase was added for incubation for another 10 min.

These items, followed by a detailed treatment of prebiotic pyroph

These items, followed by a detailed treatment of prebiotic pyrophosphate formation, serve as background to the Discussion and Summary which include the presentation of a novel evolutionary scheme for cation LY2835219 molecular weight transport through membranes. The pH

Conditions of the Mariana Forearc Near the Mariana trench, i.e. at a lateral distance of 48–54 km from the maximum depth of the trench into the overriding Philippines plate (see Fig. 1), the upwelling pore waters of the Mariana forearc have pH of 10.7 and are fresher than the ambient seawater, because the waters originate by dehydration of the subducting Pacific slab at temperatures of 300–375°C (Alt and Shanks 2006; Mottl 2009). These proximal springs form chimneys on the seafloor of the secondary mineral brucite, Mg(OH)2. Farther from the trench (70–90 km lateral distance) the fluid chemistry changes abruptly and the waters have pH 12.5 and are more concentrated with respect to dissolved inorganic species relative to seawater (Mottl 2009). These distal springs form chimneys of aragonite and calcite, both consisting of CaCO3. The reason that the fluids close to the trench have a pH of about 10.7 is because the

consumption of H+ during serpentinization (and brucite formation) of primary silicate minerals (Holm and Neubeck 2009). Mg(OH)2 is, in fact, excellent at buffering pH at alkaline conditions and has been used for that purpose in prebiotic peptide synthesis experiments (Huber et Dichloromethane dehalogenase al. 2003). However, the pH of 12.5 of the distal pore fluids requires an additional explanation, such as dissolution of carbonate minerals in cracks and fissures of the subducting Pacific plate (Mottl 2009). The greatest abundances of carbonate veins and highest bulk crustal carbon contents correspond with high permeability in the upper crust

of the plate, where greater fluid fluxes and prolonged circulation occur (Alt and Teagle 1999). Fig. 1 Cartoon showing a cross section of oceanic lithosphere, extending from the spreading center to the subduction zone. Off-axis hydrothermal flow in the oceanic lithosphere causes partial oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and reduction of water to molecular hydrogen. Some Fe(II) and Ni(II) is reduced to native metals. CO2 is reduced to CO and CH4, while NO 3 – and NO 2 – may be reduced to NH 4 + and adsorbed on secondary minerals like smectite and zeolites. During early subduction the descending plate is heated and QNZ nmr dehydrated. Adsorbed CO and CH4 may react with NH 4 + and form HCN. The released fluid carrying HCN rises from an environment of relatively low pH into hydrated mantle rock of high pH.

5 mM for SAL respectively The formation of the biofilms was obse

5 mM for SAL respectively. The formation of the biofilms was observed by determination of total counts on Columbia blood agar (CBA) plates at 5 time points during the incubation time. The final structure,

as well as the thickness of the biofilms at 5 time points during the incubation time, was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The experiments confirmed and extended our previous finding [11] that the Idasanutlin cell line composition of the growth medium has a major effect on the development, stability and composition of the biofilms. The iHS medium delayed biofilm formation by 20 h compared to mFUM4 see more (Figure 1). 4 h after inoculation in mFUM4, the discs were densely colonized by cocci. Based on the observation that most of these cocci appeared as chains, they can be assumed to be streptococci. However, after 4 h of incubation in iHS, cocci were observed to appear almost exclusively as dense microcolonies, while rods (morphologically Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, or Tannerella forsythia) in low abundance colonized the majority of the disc. Incubation in SAL medium MX69 in vitro led to a similar observation as in mFUM4: The disc was colonized mainly by cocci (Figure 2). Figure 1 Time course of biofilm growth comparing

SAL, mFUM4, and iHS as growth media. Total counts determined by plating on CBA agar plates (T. denticola and T. forsythia are not cultivable on CBA). Each box CYTH4 represents N = 9 independent biofilms from three independent triplicate experiments. The boxes

represent the inter quartile range of the data points, the bar indicates the median. The whiskers cover the data points within the 1.5x inter quartile range. Dots are outliers within 1.5 and 3 box lengths outside the interquartile range. Figure 2 Bacterial attachment to the disc surface under different nutritional conditions 4 h after inoculation. Comparison of the growth media mFUM4 (A), iHS (B) and SAL (C). green: DNA staining using YoPro-1 + Sytox. The disc surface is visualized in grey colour. The images show representative areas of one disc each. Scale bars: 15 μm (A/B) and 10 μm (C). The high concentration of human serum in iHS improved biofilm stability in terms of firm attachment to the disc (less cell loss during dip washing and the FISH staining procedure), and further the average thickness of the biofilms was significantly increased after 64.5 h when compared to biofilms grown in mFUM4, or SAL respectively (Figure 3A). However, the total counts of bacteria per biofilm did not show significant differences between the three growth media (Figure 3B). Figure 3 Thickness (A) and total counts (FISH/IF) (B) of biofilms grown for 64.5 h in SAL, mFUM4, and iHS growth medium. Thickness was determined by CLSM, total counts were calculated from the species specific quantification by visual microscopic counting following FISH- or IF from N=9 independent biofilms from three independent experiments.

3%) 3 (1 3%) Gastrointestinal disorder  Nausea 239 (7 1%) 2 (0 8%

3%) 3 (1.3%) Gastrointestinal disorder  Nausea 239 (7.1%) 2 (0.8%)  Diarrhea 234 (7.0%) 11 (4.6%) Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorder  Dermatitis 76 (2.3%) 0 (0.0%)  Eczema 59 (1.8%) 3 (1.3%) Discussion Our results indicate CBL0137 in vitro a stable fracture rate

and maintenance of BMD with strontium ranelate treatment over 10 years, despite an increase in age and prevalent fractures in the population. The major result of our study is the comparable cumulative incidences of vertebral and nonvertebral fracture in the same population over two consecutive 5-year periods. The significantly lower rate of fracture than the FRAX®-matched placebo group could be considered as indirect evidence for the sustained antifracture efficacy of strontium ranelate over 10 years of treatment. Our findings also support the safety of strontium ranelate up to 10 years’ treatment, with rates of events related to venous thromboembolism and neurological disorders in accordance with those observed over 5 years in the original studies. Long-term trials Navitoclax in vivo are not simple to perform, and extension studies are fraught with methodological problems Selleck GW786034 associated with an open-label design, small samples, and the absence of a placebo control. In osteoporosis, this renders antifracture efficacy difficult to evaluate, decreasing the reliability

of the results [18]. Long-term treatment with alendronate has been explored in an extension study, in which patients who had received 5 years’ treatment entered a 5-year extension with alendronate or placebo [2]. The objective

was to assess the effects of continuation or discontinuation of alendronate on BMD after 5 years’ treatment, while the incidence of fracture constituted an exploratory endpoint only. There was a continuous increase in BMD at the lumbar spine with long-term alendronate, and plateaus at the other sites. Despite Org 27569 the small but statistically significant between-group differences in BMD, there was no increase in morphometric vertebral or nonvertebral fractures among patients who discontinued versus those who continued alendronate. However, there was a 2.9% significant absolute risk increase in clinical spine fracture in patients who discontinued treatment. Another alendronate study [19] showed similar effects on BMD after 10 years’ treatment, but again could not conclude on vertebral fracture incidence, which was assessed as a safety rather than efficacy endpoint. Similar results were reported for risedronate in a study in which 83 patients continued for 7 years [1]. Another agent that has been tested long term is raloxifene, for which results over 8 years in women with breast cancer showed maintenance of the increases in lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, but was inconclusive on fracture risk [4, 5].

The decreasing of the resistivity may attribute to the increase o

The decreasing of the resistivity may attribute to the increase of Al donor concentration by substitution of Zn2+ sites with Al3+ ions in the ZnO lattices. However, it should be noted that the variety of resistivity in Figure  4 is also in strong correlation to the change of crystal quality in the AZO films at different Al doping concentrations, as shown in Figure  3. Initially, the decrease of the resistivity with increasing the Al concentration from 0% to 2.26% is related to the improvement of the crystal quality of the AZO films, as it was indicated by the increased intensity of the (100) X-ray diffraction peak in Figure  3. The AZO film with the best crystal quality has the

minimum resistivity of 2.38 × 10−3 Ω·cm at Al concentration of 2.26%. At higher Al doping concentration above 3%, a decrease of the intensity of the (100) diffraction peak indicates a degeneration of S3I-201 order the crystal quality;

as a consequence, an increase of the resistivity was shown in Figure  4. The reason for the increase of the resistivity at high Al concentration is probably related to the formation of Zn vacancy acceptors or the formation of homologous phase like ZnAl x O y or Al2O3 in the AZO films [9, 22]. KU-60019 nmr Figure 4 Dependence of the resistivity of AZO films on Al concentration. The transmission spectra of the AZO films deposited on quartz glasses are shown in Figure  5. The average transmittance was above 80% in the visible wavelength, regardless of the Al concentration in the AZO films. A blue shift of the optical band edge was observed with increasing the Al concentration. The relationship between absorption coefficient and optic band gap of direct band gap semiconductor is given by Tauc equation [23], (αhv)2 = B(hv − E g), where α is the absorption coefficient, hν is the photon energy, B is a constant, and E g is the optical band gap energy, respectively. The dependence of (αhν) 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase 2 on photon energy was plotted

in the inset of Figure  5. The band gap energy was obtained by the extrapolations of the liner regions of the optical absorption edges. Figure  6 shows the variation of band gap energy versus Al concentration. The band gap energy increased from 3.27 to 3.58 eV with increasing Al concentration from 0% to 4.42%. A linear fit to the bandgap energy versus Al concentration gives E g = 3.26 + 0.0749x Al, where E g is the band gap energy of AZO, x Al is the Al concentration of AZO. The correlation between the blue shift of the absorption edge and the increased conductivity with Al doping can be attributed to the Bustein-Moss increase of the band gap with increasing carrier concentration in semiconductors [12]. Figure 5 Transmission spectra of AZO films deposited on quartz glasses. The inset is the plots of (αhν)2 versus photon energy. Figure 6 Dependence of the band gap energy of AZO films on Al concentration.