39%, was prepared from LEP-1a by phosphorylation. IR, C-13 NMR and P-31 NMR results of PLEP-1a showed that the original basic structure of the polysaccharide was not changed, and the -H2PO3 group was linked at C-6 of LEP-1a. The results of anti-tumor experiments in vivo
showed that 100 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of LEP-1a could significantly improve the food consumption, body weight, tumor inhibition rate and thymus index of S180 sarcoma mice, and increase the levels of SOD, IL-2 and TNF-alpha in mice blood serum, indicating that LEP-1a had an excellent anti-tumor activity. Furthermore, PLEP-1a had a significantly enhanced inhibitory effect on S180 sarcoma mice than LEP-1a, suggesting that phosphorylation is an effective way of improving the biological activity of LEP-1a. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights BLZ945 reserved.”
“The corpus callosum is essential for neural communication selleck compound between the left and right hemispheres. Although spatiotemporal coordination of bimanual movements is mediated by the activity of the transcallosal circuit, it remains to be addressed how transcallosal neural activity is involved in the dynamic control of bimanual force execution in human. To address this issue, we investigated transcallosal inhibition (TCI) elicited by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in association
with the coordination condition of bimanual force regulation. buy Sapitinib During a visually-guided bimanual force tracking task, both thumbs were abducted either in-phase (symmetric condition) or 180 degrees out-of-phase (asymmetric condition). TMS was applied to the left primary motor cortex to elicit the disturbance of ipsilateral left force tracking due to TCI. The tracking accuracy was equivalent between the two conditions, but the synchrony of the left and right tracking trajectories was higher in the symmetric condition
than in the asymmetric condition. The magnitude of force disturbance and TCI were larger during the symmetric condition than during the asymmetric condition. Right unimanual force tracking influenced neither the force disturbance nor TCI during tonic left thumb abduction. Additionally, these TMS-induced ipsilateral motor disturbances only appeared when the TMS intensity was strong enough to excite the transcallosal circuit, irrespective of whether the crossed corticospinal tract was activated. These findings support the hypotheses that interhemispheric interactions between the motor cortices play an important role in modulating bimanual force coordination tasks, and that TCI is finely tuned depending on the coordination condition of bimanual force regulation.”
“Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important during embryonic cell layer movement and tumor cell invasiveness. EMT converts adherent epithelial cells to motile mesenchymal cells, favoring metastasis in the context of cancer progression.
We have established quantitative SPECT/computed tomography (CT) in vivo imaging protocols for determination of liver tumor burden based on the known role of p38 MAPK pathway Kupffer cells in cancer of the liver. As it is also known that functional Kupffer cells accumulate particulate material contained in the arterial blood of liver supply, we used radiolabeled macro-aggregated albumin
particles ([Tc-99m]-MAA) injected intravenously to image liver disease. Quantification of cold spot liver lesion imaging was also a general objective. We examined a healthy control group (BALB/C mice, n = 6) and group of induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, matrilin-2 transgenic KO mice, n = 9), where hepatocellular carcinoma was induced by diethylnitrosamine. We used [Tc-99m]-MAA as radiopharmaceutical for liver SPECT imaging in a small animal SPECT/CT system. A liver radioactivity overview map was generated. Segmentation of the liver was calculated by Otsu thresholding method. Based on the segmentation the radioactivity volume and the summarized liver activity were determined. Tumor burden of the livers was quantitatively determined by creating parametric data from the resulting volumetric maps. Ex vivo liver mass data were applied for the validation of in vivo measurements. An uptake with cold spots as tumors was observed in all diseased
animals in SPECT/CT scans. Isotope-labeled particle uptake (standardized uptake concentration) of control (median 0.33) and HCC (median 0.18) groups was LY294002 significantly different (p = 0.0015, Mann Whitney U test). A new potential application of [Tc-99m]-MAA was developed and presents a simple and very effective means to quantitatively characterize liver cold spot lesions resulting from Kupffer cell dysfunctions as a consequence of tumor burden.”
“Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the major causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). The gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) release assay (IGRA) has been widely used to diagnose TB by testing
cell-mediated immune responses but has no capacity for distinguishing between active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI). This study aims to identify a parameter that will help to discriminate active TB and LTBI. Whole-blood samples from 33 active TB patients, Nepicastat 20 individuals with LTBI, and 26 non-TB controls were applied to the commercial IFN-gamma release assay, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube, and plasma samples were analyzed for interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IFN-gamma, monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG), interferon gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) by using a commercial cytometric bead array. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-specific production of most of the assayed cytokines and chemokines was higher in the active TB than in the LTBI group. The mitogen-induced responses were lower in the active TB than in the LTBI group.
DNA binding studies with purified recombinant AlsR in combination with promoter mutagenesis experiments identified a 19-bp high-affinity palindromic binding site (TA AT-N-11-ATTA) GSK3235025 at positions -76 to -58 (regulatory binding site [RBS]) and a low-affinity site (AT-N-11-AT) at positions -41 to -27 (activator binding site [ABS]) upstream of the transcriptional start site of alsSD. The RBS and ABS were found to be essential for in vivo alsSD transcription. AlsR binding to both sites induced the formation of higher-order, transcription-competent complexes. The AlsR protein carrying the S100A substitution at the potential coinducer binding site still bound to the
RBS and ABS. However, AlsR(S100A) failed to form the higher-order complex and to initiate in vivo and in vitro transcription. A model for AlsR promoter binding and transcriptional activation was deduced.”
“Background: Recently, laparoscopic resection for relatively small sized gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has been widely accepted as minimally invasive surgery. However, no report on the long-term safety and efficacy of this surgery for large
sized gastric GISTs has been published to date.\n\nMethods: Between July 1998 and January 2011, 104 consecutive patients who underwent resection for gastric GISTs were enrolled in this retrospective study. We assessed the clinicopathological characteristics, postoperative outcomes, patient survival, and tumor recurrence.\n\nResults: Of the 104 patients INCB028050 with gastric GISTs who were included in the study, there were 47 males and 57 females whose mean age was Emricasan research buy 59.8 years. Sixty-four patients (61.5%) had symptoms associated with tumor. Ten patients included in the group 1, 49 in the group 2, 15 in the group 3a, 9 in the group 5, 14 in the group 6a, and 7 in the group 6b. There was one minor complication and no mortalities. Recurrence was noted in 5 patients, with a median follow-up period of 49.3 months (range, 8.4 to 164.4). The 5-year overall and disease free survival rates of 104 patients were 98.6% and 94.8%, respectively.
When comparing large tumor (5-10 cm) between laparoscopic and open surgery, there were statistically differences in age, tumor size, tumor location, and length of hospitalization. There were no statistical differences in the 5-year survival rate between laparoscopic and open surgery for large tumor (5-10cm).\n\nConclusion: Laparoscopic surgery is feasible and effective as an oncologic treatment of gastric GISTs. Moreover, laparoscopic surgery can be an acceptable alternative to open methods for gastric GISTs of size bigger than 5 cm.”
“Icaritin (ICT) is a main aglycone and also active intestinal metabolite of prenylflavonoids from the Chinese medicine Herba Epimedii. In the present study, the oral absorption and excretion of this compound was investigated using rats for exploring its fate in the body, so as to better understanding its in vivo pharmacological activities.
(c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background-The availability of more sensitive biomarkers of myonecrosis and a new classification system from the universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI) have led to evolution of the classification of GW4869 MI. The prognostic implications of MI defined in the current era have not been well described.\n\nMethods and Results-We
investigated the association between new or recurrent MI by subtype according to the European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/World Health Federation Task Force for the Redefinition of MI Classification System and the risk of cardiovascular death among 13 608 patients with acute coronary syndrome in the Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 38 (TRITON-TIMI 38). The adjusted risk of cardiovascular death buy LDK378 was evaluated by landmark analysis starting at the time of the MI through 180 days after the event. Patients who experienced an MI during follow-up had a higher risk of cardiovascular death at 6 months
than patients without an MI (6.5% versus 1.3%, P<0.001). This higher risk was present across all subtypes of MI, including type 4a (peri-percutaneous coronary intervention, 3.2%; P<0.001) and type 4b (stent thrombosis, 15.4%; P<0.001). After adjustment for important clinical covariates, the occurrence of any MI was
associated with a 5-fold higher risk of death at 6 months (95% confidence interval 3.8-7.1), with similarly increased risk across subtypes.\n\nConclusions-MI is associated with a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular death, with a consistent relationship across all types as defined by the universal classification system. These findings underscore the clinical relevance of these events and the importance of therapies aimed at preventing MI.”
“Mutations in or ablation of the gene encoding caveolin-3, CH5183284 purchase a protein of muscle cell caveolae, result in forms of muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy. Another member of the caveolin gene family, caveolin-1, is widely considered not to be expressed in myocytes, yet ablation of the gene encoding this protein in mice also results in cardiomyopathy. By applying the high-resolution electron-microscopical imaging technique of freeze-fracture replica immunolabelling, we report here evidence that caveolin-1 is expressed in human cardiac myocytes, localized to both caveolae and non-caveolar domains in the plasma membrane. Disorders of the myocyte resulting from defects in caveolin-1 may thus arise directly, at the level of the myocyte, rather than via other cell types as previously proposed.
Two observers undertook a prospective independent evaluation of central lower fornix depth in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with clinically normal and abnormal conjunctival fornices both subjectively and by using the FDM (in mm). Upper central fornix depth was also measured. Agreement was assessed using Bland-Altman plots.\n\nResults Fifty-one eyes were evaluated. There was 100% intraobserver agreement to within 1 mm for each observer for lower
fornix measurement. The mean difference in fornix depth loss using the FDM between observer 1 and 2 was 1.19%, with 95% confidence of agreement (+/- 2SD) of -15% to +20%. In total, 86% (44/51) of measurements taken by the two observers agreed to within 10% of total lower fornix depth (ie, +/- 1 mm) versus only 63% (32/51) of the subjective measurements. Mean upper fornix difference was 0.57 mm, with 95% confidence of agreement of between -2 and +3 mm.\n\nConclusions LGX818 molecular weight This custom-designed FDM is well tolerated by patients and shows low intraobserver and interobserver variability. This enables repeatable and reproducible measurement of upper and lower fornix depths, facilitating improved rates of detection and better monitoring of progression of conjunctival scarring.”
“Genetic variants predicted
to seriously disrupt the function of human protein-coding genes so-called loss-of-function (LOF) variants-have traditionally been viewed in the context of severe Mendelian disease. However, recent large-scale sequencing and genotyping projects have revealed a surprisingly large number of selleck chemicals these variants in the genomes of apparently healthy individuals at least 100 per genome, including more than 30 in a homozygous state suggesting a previously unappreciated level of variation in functional gene content between Stattic in vivo humans. These variants are mostly found at low frequency, suggesting that they are enriched for mildly
deleterious polymorphisms suppressed by negative natural selection, and thus represent an attractive set of candidate variants for complex disease susceptibility. However, they are also enriched for sequencing and annotation artefacts, so overall present serious challenges for clinical sequencing projects seeking to identify severe disease genes amidst the ‘noise’ of technical error and benign genetic polymorphism. Systematic, high-quality catalogues of LOF variants present in the genomes of healthy individuals, built from the output of large-scale sequencing studies such as the 1000 Genomes Project, will help to distinguish between benign and disease-causing LOF variants, and will provide valuable resources for clinical genomics.”
“Methadone, an opioid analgesic, is used clinically in pain therapy as well as for substitution therapy in opioid addiction. It has a large interindividual variability in response and a narrow therapeutic index.
“Bone is a plastic tissue with a large healing capability. However, extensive bone loss due to disease or trauma requires tissue-engineering applications. Presently, bone grafting is the gold standard for bone repair, but presents serious limitations including donor site morbidity, rejection, and limited tissue regeneration. The use of stem cells appears AC220 inhibitor to be a means to overcome such limitations. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) have been the choice, thus far, for stem cell therapy for bone regeneration.
However, it has been shown that adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) have similar immunophenotype, morphology, multilineage potential, and transcriptome compared to BMSC. Moreover, ASC are much more abundant, more accessible and have lower donor morbidity, which combined
may make ASC a better alternative to BMSC. ASC are also able to migrate to the site of injury and have immunosuppressive abilities similar to BMSC. Further, ASC have demonstrated extensive osteogenic capacity both in vitro and in vivo in several species, greatly enhancing the healing of critical size defects. The use of scaffolds in combination with ASC and growth factors provides a valuable tool for guided bone regeneration, especially for complex anatomic defects. Some critical elements include ASC-scaffold interactions and appropriate three-dimensional design of the porous osteoinductive structures. This review examines KU-57788 purchase data that provides strong support for the clinical translation of ASC for bone regeneration. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Elevated plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and the MTHFR c.677C > T variant have been postulated to increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), although mechanisms and implications to pediatrics remain incompletely understood. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalences of elevated tHcy and MTHFR variant MEK inhibitor in a pediatric population with VTE or arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), and to determine associations with thrombus outcomes.\n\nStudy Design: Subjects were
enrolled in an institution-based prospective cohort of children with VTE or AIS. Inclusion criteria consisted of objectively confirmed thrombus, <= 21 years at diagnosis, tHcy measured and MTHFR c.677C > T mutation analysis. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. Frequencies for elevated tHcy and MTHFR variant were compared with NHANES values for healthy US children and also between study groups (VTE vs AIS, provoked vs idiopathic) and by age.\n\nResults: The prevalences of hyperhomocysteinemia or MTHFR variant were not increased in comparison to NHANES. tHcy did not differ between those with wild-type MTHFR versus either c.677C > T heterozygotes or homozygotes. There was no association between tHcy or MTHFR variant and thrombus outcomes.
The selectivity of inhibition is at least as good as that shown by a small interfering RNA targeted to a deletion polymorphism. Our data suggest that antisense oligomers are promising subjects for further development as an anti-HD therapeutic strategy.”
“Background: Although implantation of a central venous device such as a Port-a-Cath was initially considered Nutlin-3 molecular weight safe, extravasation rates up to 4.7% have been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to propose
a structured procedure for the management of extravasation of a cytotoxic treatment. Methods: A total of eight patients were evaluated after port extravasation of epirubicin (n = 3), platinum compounds (n = 3), paclitaxel (n = 1), or trabectedin (n = 1) into the subcutaneous space. Immediate explantation
of the port was performed in combination with a “Subcutaneous Wash-Out Procedure” (SWOP). When removal of the port was delayed, debridement and flap coverage were performed as necessary. Epirubicin concentrations present in the samples obtained during surgical intervention were subsequently analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Patients were followed for at least six months and were examined for sequelae such as pain, induration, redness, and limited movement. Results: All three patients whose extravasation event was detected during chemotherapy administration benefited from SWOP with acceptable Selleckchem Emricasan side effects (e.g., erythema). The analysis of epirubicin concentrations demonstrated the active removal of relevant amounts of the compound by wound rinsing. In contrast, late detection of extravasation led to major debridement and flap coverage in four out of five patients. A high body mass index (BMI) value was associated with all of the patients that experienced port extravasation. Conclusion: Depending on when Port-a-Cath(R) extravasations into subcutaneous tissue are detected, different treatments are
appropriate. When extravasation is detected early, the SWOP was found to be beneficial. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Recently, increasing evidence has been learn more found demonstrating direct effects of angiostatin on tumor cells themselves. We have applied the plasminogen derivatives K1-4 and K1-5 to a lung cancer model to analyse indirect angiostatic effects against endothelial and direct effects against tumor cells. In accordance with preceding findings both derivatives inhibited endothelial cell functions in vitro. Additionally K1-4 and K1-5 have also shown substantial anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in tumor cells and have inhibited tumor growth. In addition our data supports the recent conclusion that plasminogen derivatives have a dual antitumor mechanism affecting both tumor angiogenesis and tumor cells.”
“Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are undifferentiated germ cells in developing fetuses.
HCA induces epithelial reversion at nanomolar concentrations by suppressing Snail via the nuclear translocalization of GSK-3 beta, which results in the transcriptional upregulation
Lazertinib of E-cadherin. HCA also activates the transcription factor KLF17, which suppresses Id-1, indicating that HCA inhibits EMT by multiple transcriptional programs. Further, HCA treatment significantly inhibits lung metastasis in a mouse orthotopic breast cancer model. This study demonstrates the anti-metastatic effect of the non-toxic natural compound HCA through attenuation of EMT in a breast cancer model.”
“The alternative sigma factor ComX is a key regulator of natural transformation in members of the genus Streptococcus. ComX controls expression of the late competence genes, which are essential for DNA binding, uptake and recombination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, it has been demonstrated that ComX is degraded by ClpEP at the end of the competence period. In the present study we show that a different Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor Clp protease complex, CIpCP, contributes to ComX degradation in Streptococcus thermophilus. Mutant strains lacking the CIpC chaperone displayed significantly increased transformability compared with the wild-type strain under conditions where ComX was expressed at relatively low levels. At higher expression levels,
CIpCP appears to become saturated and unable to prevent the accumulation of ComX. Together, our results suggest that the role of CIpC is to mediate degradation of ComX when the sigma factor is produced in low amounts, i.e. when the environmental stimulus promoting competence development is weak. This would prevent S. thermophilus from developing the competent
state at an inappropriate time and/or place.”
“Juxtanodin (JN) is a cytoskeleton-related oligodendrocyte-specific gene, and its underlying mechanism still needs detailed exploration. In this study, we tested whether a 1.9 kb fragment from the 5′-flanking region of JN is sufficient to specifically deliver the gene expression in oligodendrocytes. By reporter assay, we found that the 1.9 kb fragment specifically activated in C6 cells, which is further upregulated by ATRA-induced oligodendrocyte lineage differentiation. Bioinformatics OSI-744 cost study revealed that Nkx2.2 might be a transcription factor involved in the process. qPCR results showed that ATRA upregulated endogenous expression of Nkx2.2 in C6 cells. Further study revealed that Nkx2.2 could bind JN promoter and its overexpression increase the promoter activity of JN. In summary, our study here suggests that Nkx2.2 is one of the essential transcription factors delivering the specificity of JN promoter in oligodendrocytes.”
“Since its discovery as the first human tumor virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the development of a wide range of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, the first being Burkitt lymphoma.
pylori and their discreet associations with serious clinical outcomes such as gastric cancer. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A novel fluorescent pH sensor with tunable response range Lonafarnib research buy was designed based on highly fluorescent
3,4:9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic ammonium, which could coordinate the paramagnetic Fe3+ ions to turn off its fluorescence and could also release Fe3+ to turn on the fluorescence again at higher pH. The fluorescent pH sensor was tunable in the presence of different ligands in aqueous solution. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Background: Radon gas emanating from underground can concentrate indoor and reach levels, which represent a risk to people’s health. According to WHO (World Health Organization) and EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the world. Due to the direct correlation of AR-13324 ic50 lung cancer and radon exposure, it is ideal to evaluate the hazards of radon accumulation in the Iran dwellings with different materials by direct measurement of the radon concentrations
using accurate, simple and fast method. The aim of this study was to measure variation of radon concentrations with different covering materials on internal building surfaces including walls, which are used in Iran dwellings.\n\nMethods: A special chamber with changeable walls of different covering materials (gypsum, wallpaper, oil dye, plastic dye, wood board, and Belka) was made. Radioactive lantern mantles were used for elevating the radon (Rn-220) levels in the chamber artificially. Ventilation in the chamber had been such way that accumulation of radon could be possible. Active measurement by Prassi portable radon gas surveyor was performed for staging purposes.\n\nResults: The average radon concentration for wood and plastic dye was 869.0 +/- 66.7 and 936.8 +/- 60.6 (bq/m(3)), respectively, while that for wallpaper and gypsum was
449.2 +/- 101.7, 590.9 +/- 49.0 (bg/m(3)), significantly lower than other covers. The average radon concentration for oil dye and Belka cover was 668.3 +/- 42.3, 697.2 +/- 136.7 (bq/m(3)), 4SC-202 respectively.\n\nConclusion: Individuals living in a house with internal wall covering materials of gypsum and wallpaper receive an average annual dose smaller than one living in a house with internal wall covering materials of wood board and plastic dye. Using wallpaper and gypsum as an internal cover for the dwellings suggested.”
“Background: Exposure to acceleration can cause petechial hemorrhages, called G measles. Petechiae usually start to develop between 5 and 9 G with a high interindividual variance. Centrifuge training delays the onset to higher G levels. One might expect onset at lower G levels after bed rest; however, there is no evidence in the literature. A case of petechiae formation after bed rest is presented here.
\n\nCONCLUSIONS. The interocular similarities may explain the better visual resolution learn more in the half-binocular condition than in the dichoptic condition for all age groups tested. The results suggest that interocular interactions underpinning resolution acuity under these viewing conditions are developed in early childhood. The foveal crowding effect was found to be apparent at the beginning of school age, and diminished with maturation. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011; 52: 9452-9456) DOI: 10.1167/iovs.11-8148″
“During translation initiation in eukaryotes, the small
ribosomal subunit binds messenger RNA at the 5′ end and scans in the 5′ to 3′ direction to locate the initiation codon, form the 80S initiation complex and start protein synthesis. This simple, yet intricate, process is guided by multiple initiation factors. Here we determine the structures of three complexes of the small ribosomal subunit that represent distinct steps in mammalian translation initiation. These structures reveal the locations of eIF1, eIF1A, mRNA and initiator PP2 transfer
RNA bound to the small ribosomal subunit and provide insights into the details of translation initiation specific to eukaryotes. Conformational changes associated with the captured functional states reveal the dynamics of the interactions in the P site of the ribosome. These results have functional implications for the mechanism of mRNA scanning.”
“Angiogenesis takes place after brain ischaemia, and stroke-induced angiogenesis in ischaemic brain may be associated with improved neurological recovery. Bone MSCs (marrow stromal cells) transplantation can promote this vital angiogenesis in ischaemic zones, but the mechanisms by which MSCs promoting angiogenesis are unclear. The Notch signalling pathway may play an important role in embryonic blood vessels development and tumour angiogenesis, but whether it is also involved in angiogenesis after cerebral ischaemia is uncertain. We therefore investigated the Notch signalling pathway in angiogenesis after stroke. Rats were subjected to MCAo (middle cerebral artery occlusion)
and treated HDAC inhibitor intravenously with or without MSCs at 24 h after injury. On day 1, 3 and 7 after treatment with MSCs or PBS, immunofluorescent staining, Western blot and RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) assays were carried out to evaluate angiogenesis, and expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and Notch signals in the ischaemic cortex. Immunofluorescent showed a significant increase in both new microvessels, VEGF-positive cells and Notch1-positive microvessels in the ischaemic cortex in MSCs-treated group. RT-PCR indicated that MSC transplantation significantly raised VEGF mRNA and Hes1 mRNA levels in the ischaemic cortex. The data suggest that treatment with MSCs enhances stroke-induced angiogenesis in ischaemic brain, and that the Notch signalling pathway is involved.