We conclude that both policy approaches can improve the health pr

We conclude that both policy approaches can improve the health profile throughout the life course of a cohort, but they are not equivalent, and a large reduction in child obesity prevalence may be reversed by a small increase in the risk of becoming overweight or obese in adulthood.”
“Popularity of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has been growing gradually. The aim of this study was to determine changes in metabolic syndrome parameters as well as

this website insulin, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, and to describe the influence of body weight loss on co-morbidities in obese patients after LSG with 1-year follow-up. The material consists of 130 patients who underwent LSG (2007-2010) in order to treat morbid obesity and who had met before the surgery at least three criteria necessary for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation. The influence of LSG on co-morbidities was also analyzed. During 1-year follow-up after LSG, we obtained a statistically significant decrease in BMI (from 53.18 +/- 7.5 kg/m(2) to 31.4 +/- 3.75 kg/m(2), p < 0.00001) and a reduction in waist circumference. Twelve months after the surgery, excess weight loss (EWL) was 59.42 +/- 7.21% and excess body mass

index loss (EBL) was 61.03 +/- 6.50%. One year after LSG, the amount of patients

with diagnosed metabolic GSK690693 solubility dmso syndrome decreased in 61 patients (53.08%). After 1 year, none of the patients met five criteria of metabolic selleck screening library syndrome. According to efficiency in body mass loss presented by %EWL and %EBL, LSG is gaining approval as a method of obesity and metabolic syndrome treatment, although it is a relatively new procedure. LSG is rather an easy procedure; the time of performance and hospitalization are shorter which entails normalization in all parameters of metabolic syndrome and decreases the percentage of obese patients with metabolic syndrome.”
“A single dose of antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) was administered parenterally for the prevention of perioperative infection in a total of 788 patients undergoing urological surgery, including 380 endoscopic-instrumental, 328 clean, and 80 clean-contaminated operations performed at our institute between January 2007 and December 2009. Surgical site infections (SSIs), urinary tract infections (UTIs), and remote infections (RIs) were prospectively surveyed. The definition for a single dose of AMP allowed for the administration of an additional dose of an antimicrobial during surgery if the procedure was longer than 3 h, but not for the parenteral or oral administration at the end of the procedure in the recovery room, or at a later time over a period of more than 24 h.

Conclusions: Triggering of symptoms by emotion is common in indiv

Conclusions: Triggering of symptoms by emotion is common in individuals with HCM. Further studies will determine pathways linking emotional stressors with chest pain, dyspnea, palpitations, and lightheadedness in these patients. (PACE 2010; 33:1047-1053).”
“Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and FG-4592 in vitro dissolution studies were performed

in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase

changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO4)(2)(Cl)(2)(ciprofloxacin)(2) x nH(2)O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests.”
“Bladder cancer is a complex AS1842856 research buy disease of older patients with coexisting medical problems requiring multimodal therapy. For patients with localized bladder cancer, standard management for superficial disease includes transurethral resection with or without intravesical therapy, while muscle-invasive cancer is managed with neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy PF-03084014 followed by radical cystectomy. Comorbid conditions prevent many older patients from receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy and/or undergoing surgery. Tri-modality bladder preservation approaches

including a complete transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by combined chemotherapy and radiation have generally included only those patients who are candidates for a salvage cystectomy. Future research must specifically focus on older adults with bladder cancer including non-cisplatin-based neoadjuvant regimens; bladder preservation strategies using alternative non-cisplatin chemotherapy in non-cystectomy candidates; clinical trials evaluating novel targeted agents in older adults; and geriatric assessment tools to assist in decision making.”
“P>Low temperature is one of environmental factors that restrict plant growth homeostasis and plant-pathogen interactions. Recent studies suggest a link between temperature responses and defense responses; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear.

Results-Of the 3,442 cats that underwent necropsy during the stud

Results-Of the 3,442 cats that underwent necropsy during the study period, 59 (1.7%) had nonneoplastic middle ear disease. Six of the 59 (10%) cats, including 1 cat that was affected bilaterally, had clinical signs of middle ear disease. Etomoxir Of these, 5 had signs of unilateral peripheral vestibular

disease, and 1 had Horner syndrome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that most cats with nonneoplastic middle ear disease did not have associated clinical signs. Findings may be of clinical relevance for cats in which middle ear disease is identified as an incidental finding during computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for unrelated diseases. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;235:841-843)”
“A 51-year-old active smoker with primary acquired pulmonary alveolar

proteinosis (PAP) diagnosed by biopsy and anti-GM-CSF antibodies was treated safely with whole-lung lavage (WLL). This resulted in a rapid improvement of symptoms and arterial blood oxygenation, but not of standard lung function parameters. However, we also performed the multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBW) test to determine the lung clearance index (LCI) as well as indices of acinar ventilation heterogeneity (S-acin) and conductive ventilation heterogeneity (S-cond). At baseline, a distinct abnormality was seen for S-acin and LCI, while S-cond was at the upper limit of normal for this subject. S-acin, in particular, was AZ 628 in excess of the S-acin abnormality corresponding to a 20-pack-year smoking history. Immediately after WLL, S-acin and S-cond both fell BIBF 1120 in vivo to within a normal range while LCI also decreased but remained abnormal. The S-acin decrease was much greater than the S-cond decrease, which was to be expected after 1 week of smoking

cessation at the hospital (smoking was resumed after release from hospital). A follow-up visit 7 weeks after WLL revealed a spectacular improvement on CT scan and improvements in standard lung function. Another follow-up visit 14 weeks after WLL showed further improvements in standard lung function, and both S-acin and S-cond remained well within the normal range, and LCI was above the upper limit of normal. We conclude that in this patient, removal of excess surfactant by WLL resulted in a restored ventilation distribution in most of the distal air spaces. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“In recent decades, scientific understanding of the many roles of oxytocin (OT) in social behavior has advanced tremendously. The focus of this research has been on maternal attachments and reproductive pair bonds, and much less is known about the substrates of sociality outside of reproductive contexts. It is now apparent that OT influences many aspects of social behavior including recognition, trust, empathy, and other components of the behavioral repertoire of social species. This review provides a comparative perspective on the contributions of OT to life in mammalian social groups.

(3) In patients with hydromyelia holocord greater than the 50% of

(3) In patients with hydromyelia holocord greater than the 50% of the spinal cord’s diameter a myelotomy and insert an ependymal channel/syrinx to the subarachnoidal space shunt can resolve of the syrinx. In this case, the enlargement of the ependymal channel in “”noncommunicating”" syringomyelia associated with lumbosacral lipoma is greater than 50% of the spinal cord’s diameter; neurologic and urological symptoms occurred

and the patient benefited from cord untethering and concurrent syrinx drainage.”
“The effect of electron beam irradiation on the structural and optical properties of Poly-Allyl-Diglycol-Carbonate CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector was investigated. Samples from CR-39 detector were irradiated with electron beam with Selleckchem CDK inhibitor doses at levels between 10 and 140 kGy. The structural and optical modifications in the electron beam irradiated CR-39 samples have been studied as a function of dose using different characterization techniques such as FTIR spectroscopy, Vickers hardness, refractive index and color difference measurements. The electron beam irradiation in the dose range 25-140 kGy led to a more compact structure of CR-39 polymer, which

resulted in an improvement in its hardness with an increase in the refractive index. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 3552-3557, 2010″
“A female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin (FATWO) is a rare neoplasm which is considered to have a low malignant potential.

In 2006, a 60-year-old patient was ABT-737 mouse admitted to hospital with solid tumor on the vaginal cuff confirmed by abdominal/pelvic CT, 6 years after

her first FATWO was diagnosed and hysterectomy, bilateral adnexectomy, and omentectomia were done. No chemotherapy was administrated after her first surgery. Pelvic washings, lysis of adhesions, and excision of tumor mass were performed. Pathologic examination revealed malignant epithelial neoplasm of Wolffian origin with morphologic features similar to those of the patient’s prior tumor. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for vimentin and partially low positive for cytokeratin 19. No chemotherapy was administrated. Two years after second surgery, the patient was asymptomatic and her clinical, GSK126 order laboratory, CT, and chest X-ray findings were unremarkable.

Surgical debulking with hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy appears as the most successful initial treatment for FATWOs.”
“Study Design. In vivo experimental study.

Objective. The primary objective of the study was to investigate pressure transmission to adjacent discs during discography. A secondary objective was to quantify the transmitted pressure, both in contrast injected and noninjected porcine intervertebral discs.

Summary of Background Data. Discography is used to before surgery identify painful discs.

The validity of such methods depends on the number of trials in t

The validity of such methods depends on the number of trials in the network and the assumption that conventional MAs in the network share a common mean bias mechanism.”
“Studies have shown that sleep recovery following different protocols of forced waking varies according to the level of stress inherent to each method. Sleep deprivation activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) impairs sleep. The purpose of the present www.selleckchem.com/products/3-methyladenine.html study was to evaluate how manipulations of the CRH system during the sleep deprivation period interferes with subsequent sleep rebound. Throughout 96

hours of sleep deprivation, separate groups of rats were treated i.c.v. with vehicle, CRH or with alphahelical CRH9-41, a CRH receptor blocker, twice/day, at 07:00 h and

19:00 h. Both treatments JQ-EZ-05 impaired sleep homeostasis, especially in regards to length of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and theta/delta ratio and induced a later decrease in NREM and REM sleep and increased waking bouts. These changes suggest that activation of the CRH system impact negatively on the homeostatic sleep response to prolonged forced waking. These results indicate that indeed, activation of the HPA axis-at least at the hypothalamic level-is capable to reduce the sleep rebound induced by sleep deprivation.”
“Background: With the increasing use of probabilistically linked administrative data in health research, it is important to understand whether systematic differences occur between PXD101 the populations with linked and unlinked records. While probabilistic linkage involves combining records for individuals, population perinatal health research requires a combination of information from both the mother and her infant(s). The aims of this study were to (i) describe probabilistic linkage for perinatal records in New South Wales (NSW) Australia, (ii) determine linkage proportions for these perinatal records, and (iii) assess records with linked mother and infant hospital-birth record, and unlinked records for systematic differences.


This is a population-based study of probabilistically linked statutory birth and hospital records from New South Wales, Australia, 2001-2008. Linkage groups were created where the birth record had complete linkage with hospital admission records for both the mother and infant(s), partial linkage (the mother only or the infant(s) only) or neither. Unlinked hospital records for mothers and infants were also examined. Rates of linkage as a percentage of birth records and descriptive statistics for maternal and infant characteristics by linkage groups were determined.

Results: Complete linkage (mother hospital record – birth record – infant hospital record) was available for 95.9% of birth records, partial linkage for 3.6%, and 0.5% with no linked hospital records (unlinked). Among live born singletons (complete linkage = 96.

She had a left modified radical mastectomy in 1990 with adjuvant

She had a left modified radical mastectomy in 1990 with adjuvant chemotherapy. Histologic sections of the uterus, cervix, ovaries, appendix and external iliac lymph node obtained at laparotomy

revealed diffuse neoplastic lymphoid infiltration with necrosis. Light microscopy revealed starry sky patterns and immunohistochemical buy BB-94 staining demonstrated atypical lymphocytes which stained for CD20, CD10, bcl-6, and Ki-67. After complete staging, chemotherapy was started and the patient is presently tumor free 41 months after the diagnosis.

Burkitt’s lymphoma arising from the uterus/cervix is extremely rare and may present as a pelvic mass. Early diagnosis, aggressive chemotherapy, +/- surgical intervention, plays an important role in management and survival of patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma.”
“A series of ultraviolet (UV)-curable, see more boron-containing hybrid coatings were prepared by an anhydrous sol-gel technique from a mixture of an acrylated bisphenol A based epoxy resin, methacryloxymethyl triethoxysilane, and boric acid. The use of boric acid allowed the hydrolysis and condensation of hybrid silicon alkoxides without the further addition of water or a catalyst. The chemical structure of the boron-containing hybrid coatings was characterized with Fourier transform

infrared, real-time infrared, and (29)Si cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning NMR techniques. UV-curable coatings were applied to polycarbonate and Plexiglas substrates. The physical and mechanical properties of the UV-cured coatings SRT1720 clinical trial (e.g., pendulum hardness, pencil hardness, con-tact angle, gel content, methyl ethyl ketone rubbing test, tensile test, abrasion resistance, chemical resistance, neutron absorption, and limiting oxygen index) were examined. The hybrid coatings showed a significant enhancement in their radiation-shielding properties. The thermal behavior of the coatings was also evaluated. It was observed that the thermal stability of the coatings mainly depended on their

boron and silicate contents. The results of all analyses of the free films and coatings were examined. VC 2010 Wiley Periodicals, (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 2112-2121, 2011″
“Accessory ovaries are rare entities defined as small portions of ovarian tissue situated near, and connected to, the normally placed ovary. Tumors arising in accessory ovaries are extremely rare. In particular, a fibroma arising from an accessory ovary has not been reported in the literature. We describe such a case with a fibroma developing in an accessory ovary. A 53-year-old multiparous woman presented with abdominal pain for 2 months. Pelvic computed tomography revealed 11.0×8.0×6.0 cm sized cystic mass with a thick septal wall in right adnexa. The preoperative diagnosis was a borderline ovarian tumor.

Materials of study The authors analyze their experience with thr

Materials of study. The authors analyze their experience with three cases of goiter forgotten, observed in a series of 2946 thyroid resections in the period 2005-2010. Torin 1 purchase In the study, a preoperative CT of the chest with three-dimensional reconstruction was always performed to examine the topographical relationships

of the lesion. Excision was performed through cervicotomy, cervicosternotomic approach and cervicosternotomy, and posterolateral right thoracotomy. Results. There were no complications. Histological examination was suggestive of malignancy in one case (follicular carcinoma with pulmonary metastases). Discussion. The indication for surgery in cases of forgotten goiter is intrinsic to the diagnosis. Preoperative evaluation with accurate topographic imaging is required in all cases in order to understand the nature and location of mediastinal pathological tissue and to identify the most suitable access route. The cervicotomy

is the ideal access for low surgical trauma and is easily extendable into a partial or complete sternotomy. A thoracotomy, ABT-263 datasheet on the other hand, which is usually reserved for the right side, must be planned preoperatively. (C) Versita Sp. z o.o”
“This study evaluated the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of ceramic brackets with different base designs using a 473-nm diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser to test its usefulness as a light source. A total of 180 caries-free human premolars were divided into four groups according to the base designs: microcrystalline, crystalline particle (CP), dovetail, and mesh. For each base design, teeth were divided into three different subgroups

for light curing using three different light-curing units (LCUs) (quartz-tungsten-halogen unit, light-emitting diode selleck kinase inhibitor unit, and a DPSS laser of 473 nm). Applied light intensities for the DPSS laser and the other LCUs were approximately 630 and 900 mW/cm(2), respectively. Stainless steel brackets with a mesh design served as controls. The failure modes of debonded brackets were scored using ARI. As a result, brackets bonded using the DPSS laser had the highest SBS values (16.5-27.3 MPa) among the LCUs regardless of base design. Regarding base designs, the CP groups showed the highest SBS values (22.9-27.3 MPa) regardless of LCU. Furthermore, stainless steel brackets with a mesh design had the lowest SBS values regardless of LCU. In many cases, brackets bonded using the DPSS laser had higher ARI scores and had more adhesive on their bases than on tooth surfaces. The study shows that the 473-nm DPSS laser has considerable potential for bonding ceramic brackets at lower light intensities than the other light-curing units examined.”
“The patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with various complications of prematurity. Cyclooxygenase-inhibitors are the first-line intervention for closure of the PDA.

METHODS: K562 cells were treated with griseofulvin at different c

METHODS: K562 cells were treated with griseofulvin at different concentrations for 24 hours, and the inhibition effect of griseofulvin on K562 cell proliferation was assessed by tetrazolium salt colorimetric assay. Apoptosis was assessed by examining nuclear morphology and quantifying phosphatidylserine externalization, and alterations in cellular morphology were analyzed by laser scanning confocal BMS-777607 inhibitor microscopy for fluorescent analysis. Flow cytometry was used in the analysis of cell cycle, mitochondrial

membrane potential, and caspase pathways.

RESULTS: Griseofulvin could inhibit the growth of K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner with a mean (SD) inhibitory concentration of 50% value of 15.38 (1.35) mu g/mL compared with untreated controls. Apoptosis was induced in K562 cells (38.35% [2.73%] P < 0.01) by griseofulvin with the observation of both an increase in phosphatidylserine level and accumulation of chromatin nucleation in griseofulvin-treated cells. In addition, cell-cycle analysis using propidium iodide staining suggested a significant G2/M accumulation (increase from mean 17.64% [4.49%] to 48.29 [1.89%]; P < 0.01) as a result of griseofulvin

treatment. Flow cytometry analysis found that griseofulvin treatment was associated with the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane in K562 cells. Furthermore, increased activities of caspase-3 by 22.15-fold (P < 0.01) and caspase-9 by 16.73-fold (P < 0.01) were observed in K562 cells after griseofulvin treatment compared with the untreated control; a decrease of caspase-8 activity was also Galunisertib cell line observed, but the change was not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that griseofulvin inhibited growth of K562 cells and induced cell apoptosis through cell-cycle arrest and selleck kinase inhibitor mitochondrial membrane potential decrease as well as caspase-3 and -9 activation. Further testing is needed to evaluate the potential of griseofulvin as a candidate in the chemotherapy of hematologic malignancies. (Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2010;71:384-397) (C) 2010

Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.”
“We present a seldom seen case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) with concurrent obstructive coronary artery disease (OCAD) and its first case surgical experience. We propose that TCM and OCAD can coexist and that the presence of OCAD should not be an exclusion criterion for the diagnosis of TCM.”
“Selectively substituted derivatives of alpha-cyclodextrin and hexa-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-alpha-cyclodextrin containing a definite number of acylated primary or secondary hydroxy groups were synthesized using benzoic, acetylsalicylic, and 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid chlorides in various solvents in the presence of different bases. The acyl residues were assigned to the C(2), C(3), or C(6) atoms in the carbohydrate fragments on the basis of (13)C NMR data.

Sequences analysis showed that Brazilian BToVs have a high degree

Sequences analysis showed that Brazilian BToVs have a high degree of identity with European A769662 and Japanese BToVs and a lower degree of identity with North American Breda 1 strain. These results show that, albeit its low frequency and the scarce number of research on the field, BToV is still present amongst cattle populations. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The question in the title of this article arises from ambiguities in the diagnostic criteria for chronic migraine (CM) included in the 2004 International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Edition (ICHD-II), and in the 2006 revision. More broadly speaking, it also arises from the fact that

to date the general subject of chronic daily headaches (CDH) has not been approached in a correct and appropriate way. For all its limitations, ICHD-II has unquestionable merits and remains a fundamental tool. However, it is a tool that gets a snapshot picture of headache; so, it is not applicable to a dynamic form that evolves from and is transformed by a chain of events. If these events are ignored, there will be no accurate interpretation of the final clinical picture. Today, we still do not have any classification of headache syndromes to complement ICHD-II. Currently, then, the only way to approach the CDH issue is to put patients at the center and to focus on their life histories. If we reason strictly in

terms of diagnostic classification criteria, which for this headache subtype are artificial and ambiguous, we may have trouble finding an answer to the title question. However, if we reason in broader clinical Kinase Inhibitor Library purchase terms, putting

at the center of our reasoning not only headache features, but patients with all their histories, the answer can only be that CM and chronic tension-type headache are two different clinical entities.”
“Nominal composition of Ba(0.93)Bi(0.07)Ti(1-x)Mn(x)O(3) (x=0, 0.02, and 0.04) ceramics have been prepared by a modified Pechini method. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the samples are pure perovskite BaTiO(3) (BTO) structure with no trace of impurity phase. The cell volume of the composites increases monotonously with the increase in Mn content, which indicates that Mn ions have been incorporated into the lattice of Ba(0.93)Bi(0.07)TiO(3). www.selleckchem.com/products/MLN-2238.html The samples are experimentally confirmed to show ferromagnetic (FM) and ferroelectric behaviors simultaneously at room temperature. The temperature dependent magnetic behaviors show complex magnetic interactions including FM, antiferromagnetic, and paramagnetic. These results suggest that the dopant Bi and Mn help BTO transit from pure ferroelectric to multiferroic materials and the magnetic behaviors can be explained by the bound magnetic polaron model with inhomogeneity of Mn dopant distribution. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

Results: Twenty articles (two retrospective comparative studies a

Results: Twenty articles (two retrospective comparative studies and eighteen case series) satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included. Both of the comparative studies involved comparison of lateral mass screw fixation with wiring and indicated that the risk of complications was comparable between treatments (range, 0% to 7.1% compared with 0% to 6.3%, respectively). In one study, the fusion rate reported in the screw fixation group (100%) was similar to that in the wiring group (97%). Complication risks following lateral mass

screw fixation were low across the eighteen case series. Nerve root injury attributed to screw placement occurred in 1.0% (95% confidence interval, 0.3% to 1.6%) of patients. No cases of vertebral artery injury were reported. Instrumentation complications such Etomoxir price as screw or rod pullout, screw or plate breakage, and screw loosening occurred in <1% of the screws inserted. Fusion was achieved in 97.0% of patients across nine

case series.

Conclusions: The risks of complications were low and the fusion rate was high when lateral mass screw fixation was used in patients undergoing posterior cervical subaxial fusion. Nerve root injury attributed to screw placement occurred in only 1% of 1041 patients. No cases of vertebral artery injury were identified in 758 patients. Screw or rod pullout, screw or plate breakage, and screw loosening occurred in <1% of the screws inserted.”
“P>Uptake of CO(2) by the leaf is associated with loss of water. Control of stomatal aperture by volume changes

of guard cell pairs optimizes the efficiency of water use. Under water stress, Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) activates BB-94 the guard-cell anion release channel SLOW ANION CHANNEL-ASSOCIATED 1 (SLAC1), and thereby triggers stomatal closure. Plants with mutated OST1 and SLAC1 are defective in guard-cell turgor regulation. To study the effect of stomatal movement on leaf turgor using intact leaves of Arabidopsis, we used a new pressure probe to monitor transpiration and turgor pressure simultaneously and non-invasively. This probe permits routine easy access to parameters related to water status and stomatal conductance under physiological conditions using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Long-term leaf turgor pressure recordings over several weeks showed a drop in turgor during the day and recovery at night. Thus pressure changes directly correlated with the degree of plant transpiration. Leaf turgor of wild-type plants responded to CO(2), light, humidity, ozone and abscisic acid (ABA) in a guard cell-specific manner. Pressure probe measurements of mutants lacking OST1 and SLAC1 function indicated impairment in stomatal responses to light and humidity. In contrast to wild-type plants, leaves from well-watered ost1 plants exposed to a dry atmosphere wilted after light-induced stomatal opening.